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iAs continues to poison the drinking water of tens of millions of people around the world. More than 2.3 million people in North Carolina use water from private, unregulated wells . Data from 2009. Sanders et al 2011. >63,000 wells over 10 yrs Max=800 ppb

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iAs continues to poison the drinking water of tens of millions of people around the world


More than 2.3 million people in North Carolina use water from private, unregulated wells

Data from 2009

Sanders et al 2011

>63,000 wells over 10 yrs

Max=800 ppb

1436 wells contaminated above 10 ppb

Hundreds exceeded 50 ppb


More than 2.3 million people in North Carolina use water from private, unregulated wells

Data from 2009

75,000 people

Sanders et al 2011

>63,000 wells over 10 yrs

Max=800 ppb

1436 wells contaminated above 10 ppb

Hundreds exceeded 50 ppb


Cytochrome c oxidase
Cytochrome c from private, unregulated wells oxidase

  • The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase or Complex IV) is a large transmembrane protein complex found in bacteria and the mitochondrion.

  • The complex contains two hemes a cytochrome a and cytochrome a3, and two copper centers, the CuA and CuB centers


1 from private, unregulated wells


2 from private, unregulated wells


3 from private, unregulated wells


Cd and Zn transporters from private, unregulated wells


Methylmercury from private, unregulated wells and methionine


Monovalent from private, unregulated wells , divalent


elemental from private, unregulated wells

inorganic


Inhibits ability to make hemoglobin from private, unregulated wells


Cr(VI) is generally considered 1,000 times more toxic than Cr(III) [EPA 1998; ATSDR 2000; Dayan and Paine 2001].


  • The Cr(III) [EPA 1998; ATSDR 2000; Dayan and Paine 2001]. toxicity of chromium compounds depends on the oxidation state of the metal.

  • Occupational exposure to chromium(VI) compounds has been associated with increased incidence of lung cancer.

  • Chromium(III) is an essential nutrient that can be toxic in large doses.


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