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Business Information Systems: An Overview. Management Information Systems, Fifth Edition by Effy Oz. Objectives. Explain why information systems are essential to business Describe how computers process data into useful information for problem solving and decision making

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Business information systems an overview

Business Information Systems: An Overview

Management Information Systems, Fifth Edition by Effy Oz


Objectives
Objectives

  • Explain why information systems are essential to business

  • Describe how computers process data into useful information for problem solving and decision making

  • Identify the functions of different types of information systems in business

  • Describe careers in information technology

  • Identify major ethical and societal concerns created by widespread use of information technology


The purpose of information systems
The Purpose of Information Systems

  • Businesses use information systems

    • To make sound decisions

    • To solve problems

  • Problem is any undesirable situation

  • Decision arises when more than one solution to problem exists


The purpose of information systems continued
The Purpose of Information Systems (continued)

  • Problem solving and decision making require information

  • Keys to success in business are

    • Gathering correct information

    • Storing information

    • Using information


Data information and information systems
Data, Information, and Information Systems

  • “Data”, “information” and “system” are commonly used terms

  • Important to understand their similarities and differences


Data vs information
Data vs. Information

  • Data: a given or fact

    • Can be number, statement, or picture

  • Information: facts or conclusions that have meaning within context

    • Composed of data that is manipulated


Data manipulation
Data Manipulation

  • Data is manipulated to make useful information

  • Survey is common method of collecting data

  • Raw data is hard to read

  • Information is more useful to business than data


Generating information
Generating Information

  • A process is manipulation of data

  • Process usually produces information

  • Process may produce more data

  • A piece of information in one context may be considered data in another context


Generating information continued
Generating Information (continued)

Figure 1.1: Input-process-output


Information in context
Information in Context

  • Not all information is useful

  • Useful information is

    • Relevant

    • Complete

    • Accurate


Information in context continued
Information in Context (continued)

  • Useful information is

    • Current

    • Obtained economically (in business)


Information in context continued1
Information in Context (continued)

Figure 1.2: Characteristics of useful information


What is a system
What Is a System?

  • System: array of components that work together to achieve goal or goals

  • System

    • Accepts input

    • Processes input

    • Produces output


What is a system continued
What is a system? (continued)

  • System may have multiple goals

  • System may contain subsystems

  • Subsystems have sub-goals that meet main goal

  • Subsystems transfer output to other subsystems


What is a system continued1
What is a system? (continued)

  • Closed system: has no connections with other systems

  • Open system: interfaces and interacts with other systems

    • Often a subsystem of a bigger system

  • Information system: processes data and produces information


Information and managers
Information and Managers

  • Systems thinking: thinking of an organization in terms of subsystems

  • Database: collection of electronic records

  • Information systems automate exchange among subsystems

  • Information map: network of information systems

  • Information technology: technologies that facilitate construction and maintenance of information systems


The benefits of human computer synergy
The Benefits of Human-Computer Synergy

  • Humans are relatively slow and make mistakes

  • Computers cannot make decisions

  • Synergy: combining resources to produce greater output


The benefits of human computer synergy continued
The Benefits of Human-Computer Synergy (Continued)

Figure 1.4: Qualities of humans and computers that contribute to synergy


Information systems in organizations
Information Systems in Organizations

  • Computer-based Information system: system with computer at center

  • Certain trends have made information systems important in business

  • Organizations lag behind if they do not use information systems


Components of information systems
Components of information systems

Figure 1.5: Components of an information system


The four stages of processing
The Four Stages of Processing

  • Input: collect and introduce data to system

    • Transaction: a business event, usually entered as input

  • Data processing: perform calculations on input

  • Output: what is produced by the information system

  • Storage: vast amounts of data stored on optical discs


Computer equipment for information systems
Computer Equipment for Information Systems

  • Input devices: receive input

  • Computer: process data

  • Output: displays information

  • Storage devices: store data

  • Network devices: transfer data


Computer equipment for information systems continued
Computer Equipment for Information Systems (continued)

Figure 1.6: Input, process, output, storage, and networking devices


From recording transactions to providing expertise types of information systems
From Recording Transactions to Providing Expertise: Types of Information Systems

  • Many types of information systems

  • Capabilities of applications have been combined and merged

  • Management Information System: supports planning, control, and making decisions


Transaction processing systems
Transaction Processing Systems Information Systems

  • Most widely used type of system

  • Records data collected at point where organization interacts with other parties

  • Encompasses cash registers, ATMs and purchase order systems


Supply chain management systems
Supply Chain Management Systems Information Systems

  • Supply chain: sequence of activities involved in producing products

    • Activities include marketing, purchasing raw materials, manufacturing, shipping, billing, collection, and after-sale services


Customer relationship management systems
Customer Relationship Management Systems Information Systems

  • Customer relationship management: managing relations with customers

    • Used in combination with telephones to provide customer service

    • Often linked to Web applications that track online transactions


Business intelligence systems
Business Intelligence Systems Information Systems

  • Business Intelligence: gather data to help organization compete

    • Often contains statistical models

    • Access large pools of data

  • Data warehouse: large database that usually store transactional records


Decision support and expert systems
Decision Support and Expert Systems Information Systems

  • Decision support system: supports decision-making

    • Relies on models to produce tables

    • Extrapolates data to predict outcomes

  • Expert system: supports knowledge-intensive decision-making

    • Uses artificial intelligence


Geographic information systems
Geographic Information Systems Information Systems

  • Geographic information system: ties data to physical locations

  • Represents data on a map in different formats

  • May reflect demographic information in addition to geographic

  • May use information from GPS satellites


Geographic information systems continued
Geographic Information Systems Information Systems (continued)


Information systems in business functions
Information Systems in Business Functions Information Systems

  • Functional business area: services within a company that support main business

    • Includes accounting, finance, marketing, and human resources

    • Part of a larger enterprise system


Accounting
Accounting Information Systems

  • Information systems help record transactions

  • Produce periodic statements

  • Create required reports for law

  • Create supplemental reports for managers


Finance
Finance Information Systems

  • Finance systems facilitate financial planning and business transactions

  • Tasks include organizing budgets, managing cash flow, analyzing investments, and making decisions


Marketing
Marketing Information Systems

  • Pinpoint likely customers and promote products

  • Marketing information systems analyze demand for products in regions and demographic groups

    • Identify trends in demand for products/services

  • Web provides opportunity to collect marketing data


Human resources
Human Resources Information Systems

  • Human resource management systems aid record-keeping

    • Must keep accurate records

    • Aids recruiting, selection, placement, and reward analysis

  • Performance evaluation systems provide grading utilities


Web empowered enterprises
Web Empowered Enterprises Information Systems

  • E-commerce: Buying and selling goods and services through Internet

  • Internet is a vast network of computers connected globally

  • Web has a profound impact on information systems


Careers in information systems
Careers in Information Systems Information Systems

  • Information technology professionals are increasingly in demand

  • Networking, system analyst, software engineering, and database administrator jobs are increasing in demand


Systems analyst
Systems Analyst Information Systems

  • System analyst: designs and updates information systems

  • Involves analyzing system requirements, documenting development efforts, and providing specifications for programmers

  • Requires communication and presentation skills


Database administrator
Database Administrator Information Systems

  • Database administrator: responsible for databases

    • Develops and acquires database applications

    • Must protect privacy of customers and employees

    • Responsible for securing the database


Network administrator
Network Administrator Information Systems

  • Network administrator: acquires, implements, manages, maintains, troubleshoots networks

  • Implements security

    • Firewalls

    • Access codes


Webmaster
Webmaster Information Systems

  • Webmaster: creates and maintains Web site

  • Designs and codes the page

  • Demand for Webmasters grows as more businesses use Web


Chief security officer
Chief Security Officer Information Systems

  • Chief security officer: supervises security of information system

  • Position exists due to growing threat to information security

  • Reports to chief information officer


Chief information officer and chief technology officer
Chief Information Officer and Chief Technology Officer Information Systems

  • Chief information officer: responsible for all aspects of information system

    • Often the vice president

  • Chief technology officer: has similar duties as CIO


Chief information officer and chief technology officer continued
Chief Information Officer and Chief Technology Officer Information Systems (continued)

Figure 1.7: Traits of a successful CIO


Summary
Summary Information Systems

  • Computer-based information systems pervade almost every aspect of our lives

  • A system is a set of components that work together to achieve a common goal

  • Subsystem: a system performs a limited task that produces an end result, which must be combined with other products from other systems to reach an ultimate goal

  • Data processing has four stages


Summary continued
Summary (continued) Information Systems

  • Any IS that helps in management is a management information system (MIS)

  • Many different types of MIS

  • Enterprise application systems (SCM or ERP) tie together different functional areas of a business

  • ISs are used in accounting, finance, marketing, and human resources


Summary continued1
Summary (continued) Information Systems

  • The job prospects for IT professionals are bright

  • IT has created societal concerns


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