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Biology AHSGE. Standard VI- Mitosis and Meiosis. Biology AHSGE. CONTENT STANDARD 6 . Describe the roles of mitotic and meiotic divisions during reproduction, growth, and repair of cells. ELIGIBLE CONTENT A. Demonstrate an understanding of how meiosis leads to variation.

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Biology AHSGE

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Biology ahsge

Biology AHSGE

Standard VI- Mitosis and Meiosis


Biology ahsge1

Biology AHSGE

CONTENT STANDARD 6. Describe the roles of mitotic and meiotic divisions during reproduction, growth, and repair of cells.

ELIGIBLE CONTENT

A. Demonstrate an understanding of how meiosis leads to variation.

B. Describe the role of meiosis in producing variation.

C. Describe the role of meiosis in reproduction.

D. Describe the role of mitosis in cell repair.

E. Describe the role of mitosis in growth.

F. Describe the role of both mitosis and meiosis.


The cell cycle

The Cell Cycle

  • When a eukaryotic cell reaches its size limit, it divides.

  • Cell Cycle- Reproduction by a cycle of growing and dividing.

  • Three phases:

    • Interphase- Cell growth, maturity, DNA duplication, and prep for division

      • Chromatin (relaxed form of DNA) strands make copies of themselves

    • Mitosis- Nuclear material divides and moves to opposite sides of the cell

    • Cytokinesis- Cytoplasm divides, and two identical daughter cells form


The cell cycle1

The Cell Cycle


The cell cycle and mitosis

The Cell Cycle and Mitosis

  • Purposes:

    • Increase the number of cells as a young organism grows into the adult form

    • Replace damaged cells

  • Regulation: Controlled by cyclins (proteins) binding to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs- enzymes)

    • Cancer- Uncontrolled division and growth of cells

    • Carcinogen- Known to cause cancer

    • Apoptosis- Programmed cell death

    • Stem cells- Unspecialized cells that can develop into specialized cells

      • Embryonic stem cells- First 100-150 cells from a fertilized egg

      • Adult stem cells- Found in various tissues; may be used to maintain and repair those tissues


Mitosis prophase

Mitosis- Prophase

  • Chromatin strands tighten (condense) into chromosomes

    • Sister chromatids- Identical halfs of a chromosome

    • Centromere- Center of attachment

  • Nucleolus disappears

  • Spindle Fibers appear and attach to opposite sides of centromeres and centrioles

    - Responsible for moving and arranging chromosomes

  • Centrioles move to the poles

    - Spindle apparatus- Spindle fibers, centrioles and aster fibers (star-like microtubules of centriole)

  • Nuclear envelope disappears


Mitosis metaphase

Mitosis- Metaphase

  • Sister chromatids are pulled by motor proteins along the spindle apparatus toward the center of the cell

  • Chromosomes line up in the middle, or equator, of the cell


Mitosis anaphase

Mitosis- Anaphase

  • Microtubules of spindle apparatus shorten, pulling the chromosomes in half

  • With the help of motor proteins, chromatid strands are pulled to opposite sides of the cell


Mitosis telophase

Mitosis- Telophase

  • Chromatid strands arrive at ends of cell and decondense

  • Two new nuclear membranes form around chromatin

  • Nucleoli reappear

  • Spindle apparatus disassembles


Cytokinesis

Cytokinesis

  • Cytoplasm divides resulting in two cells with identical nuclei

  • In plants, a cell plate forms and new cell wall forms on each side

  • Binary fission- In prokaryotes, DNA is duplicated and copies attach to cell membrane. Membrane grows and pulls apart DNA molecules. Cell completes fission, resulting in two identical cells.


Ahsge biology

AHSGE Biology

Standard VI- Mitosis and Meiosis


Chromosomes

Chromosomes

  • Traits- Characteristics passed to offspring from parents

    • Instructions found on chromosomes

    • Genes- segments of DNA found on each chromosome; approx. 1500 per chromosome

  • Homologous Chromosomes- Pairs of chromosomes; one from each parent

    • Humans- 23 pairs; 23 from each parent

      • 46 total chromosomes


Haploid vs diploid

Haploid Vs. Diploid

  • Gametes- Sex cells with half the number of chromosomes

    • Created to maintain the chromosome number from generation to generation

    • Represented by symbol n

    • Haploid- A cell with n number of chromosomes

    • Human gametes- n = 23

  • Fertilization- Fusion of gametes

    • Results in 2n zygote (fertilized egg cell)

    • Diploid- A cell with 2n number of chromosomes

    • Human somatic (regular body cells) cells- 2n = 46


Meiosis

Meiosis

  • Forms gametes with genetic variation

    • Spermatogenesis- process of producing sperm with half the number of chromosomes

      • Undifferentiated- no flagellum

    • Oogenesis- the creation of an ovum (egg cell)

      • three polar bodies all die (incomplete egg cells)

  • Reduction division- Reduces the number of chromosomes in half

    • 2n ⃗ n (Diploid to haploid)

  • Occurs in reproductive structures of sexual organisms

  • Involves two divisions: Meiosis I and Meiosis II


Meiosis i

Meiosis I

  • Cell undergoes Interphase

  • Prophase I

    • Homologous chromosomes condense and pair up (synapsis)

    • Crossing over- segments or genes are exchanged during synapsis

    • Centrioles move to opposite poles and spindle fibers attach to centromeres


Crossing over

Crossing Over


Meiosis i1

Meiosis I

  • Metaphase I- Homologous chromosomes (pairs) line up at the equator

  • Anaphase I- Homologous chromosomes separate and move towards opposite poles (disjunction)

    • Reduces chromosome number from 2n to n

    • Independent Assortment- random segregation and assortment of chromosomes during gametogenesis (production of gametes); aids in increasing genetic diversity


Meiosis i2

Meiosis I

  • Telophase I- Individual chromosomes arrive at opposite poles

    • Cytokinesis occurs

    • Nuclear membrane and nucleoli reappear

    • Two new cells formed, each with new genetic variation


Meiosis ii

Meiosis II

  • Prophase II- Occurring in two cells

    • Chromosomes condense

    • Nucleolus disappears

    • Spindle Fibers appear and attach to opposite sides of centromeres and centrioles

      - Centrioles move to the poles

      - Nuclear envelope disappears


Meiosis ii1

Meiosis II

  • Metaphase II- Sister chromatids are pulled by motor proteins along the spindle apparatus to line up at the equator


Meiosis ii2

Meiosis II

  • Anaphase II- Microtubules of spindle apparatus shorten, pulling the chromosomes in half and to opposite sides of the cell


Meiosis ii3

Meiosis II

  • Telophase II

    • Chromatid strands arrive at ends of cell and decondense

    • Two new nuclear membranes form around chromatin

    • Nucleoli reappear

    • Spindle apparatus disassembles

    • Cytokinesis occurs

    • Four unique, haploid (n) gametes result


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