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Steroid Structure. Protein Structure and Function. Proteins Polymers made of amino acid monomers Amino acids: Central carbon bonded to carboxyl Amino group Hydrogen Atom R group. Peptide Bonds. Peptide Bond Link amino acids dehydration synthesis Protein function depends

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protein structure and function
Protein Structure and Function
  • Proteins
    • Polymers made of amino acid monomers
    • Amino acids:
      • Central carbon bonded to carboxyl
      • Amino group
      • Hydrogen Atom
      • R group
peptide bonds
Peptide Bonds
  • Peptide Bond
    • Link amino acids
    • dehydration synthesis

Protein function depends

On # and order of amino

acids

four levels of protein structure
Four levels of protein structure
  • Primary: sequence of amino acids
  • Secondary: refers to one of two 3D structures that result from H bonding
    • Alpha helix “spring”
    • Beta pleated sheet “accordion”
  • Tertiary: Complex globular shape
    • Result of interactions between R groups
    • Hydrophobic interactions
    • Van der Waals
    • Disulfide bridges
  • Quaternary: two or more polypeptides forming one large protein.
shape dictates function
Shape Dictates Function
  • Improper protein folding can lead to a variety of diseases
    • Cancer
    • Sickle-cell disease: abnormal hemoglobin
    • Prions
    • Alhezimers disease
  • Chaperonins:
    • assist in proper folding
    • Provide proper folding environment
  • Denaturation
    • Protein looses shape and or function
        • Heat
        • pH
        • Salt concentrations
alzheimer s disease
Alzheimer\'s disease
  • Beta-amyloid is a fragment from a larger protein called amyloid precursor protein APP.
  • Cut by enzymes
  • Leads to plaque formation
  • Plaques disrupt calcium concentration, accumulate on mitochondria, induce apoptosis
magnetic resonance imaging
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Research from Drs. Yang and Meadowcroft at the Penn State Hershey Med Center, Center for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Research.
nucleic acids
Nucleic Acids
  • Store and transmit hereditary information
    • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
    • RNA (ribonucleic acid)
    • Both have monomer nucleotides
  • Nucleotides 3 parts
    • Nitrogenous Base: adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine, uralic
    • Pentose: 5 carbon sugar
    • Phosphate:
dna rna
DNA & RNA
  • DNA is the molecule of heredity
    • Double stranded helix
    • Composed of
      • Adenine
      • Thymine
      • Cytosine
      • Guanine
      • G bonds C
      • A bonds T
  • RNA
    • Single Stranded
    • Composed of
      • Adenine
      • Cytosine
      • Guanine
      • Uracil
concept check
Concept Check
  • Which two functional groups are always found in amino acids?
  • Describe why phospholipids are important components of cell membranes, based on their structure and properties
  • Hydrolysis is involved in
    • A. Formation of starch
    • B. hydrogen bond formation between nucleic acids
    • C. Peptide bond formation of proteins
    • They hydrophilic interactions of lipids
    • The digestion of maltose to glucose
  • Compare and Contrast DNA vs RNA
concept check responses
Concept Check Responses
  • Carboxyl (the acid part), amino (the amino part)
  • Polar head, apolar tail, bilayer, fluid, semipermeable membrane
  • E is correct, hydrolysis, hydro-water, lysis-splits. Look for a large polymer split to monomer.
  • DNA double stranded RNA Single stranded, DNA Thymidine, RNA Uracil, DNA deoxyribose, RNA ribose
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