Steroid structure
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Steroid Structure. Protein Structure and Function. Proteins Polymers made of amino acid monomers Amino acids: Central carbon bonded to carboxyl Amino group Hydrogen Atom R group. Peptide Bonds. Peptide Bond Link amino acids dehydration synthesis Protein function depends

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Steroid Structure

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Steroid structure

Steroid Structure


Protein structure and function

Protein Structure and Function

  • Proteins

    • Polymers made of amino acid monomers

    • Amino acids:

      • Central carbon bonded to carboxyl

      • Amino group

      • Hydrogen Atom

      • R group


Peptide bonds

Peptide Bonds

  • Peptide Bond

    • Link amino acids

    • dehydration synthesis

      Protein function depends

      On # and order of amino

      acids


Four levels of protein structure

Four levels of protein structure

  • Primary: sequence of amino acids

  • Secondary: refers to one of two 3D structures that result from H bonding

    • Alpha helix “spring”

    • Beta pleated sheet “accordion”

  • Tertiary: Complex globular shape

    • Result of interactions between R groups

    • Hydrophobic interactions

    • Van der Waals

    • Disulfide bridges

  • Quaternary: two or more polypeptides forming one large protein.


Levels of protein structure

Levels of Protein Structure


Shape dictates function

Shape Dictates Function

  • Improper protein folding can lead to a variety of diseases

    • Cancer

    • Sickle-cell disease: abnormal hemoglobin

    • Prions

    • Alhezimers disease

  • Chaperonins:

    • assist in proper folding

    • Provide proper folding environment

  • Denaturation

    • Protein looses shape and or function

      • Heat

      • pH

      • Salt concentrations


Chaperonin

Chaperonin


Alzheimer s disease

Alzheimer's disease

  • Beta-amyloid is a fragment from a larger protein called amyloid precursor protein APP.

  • Cut by enzymes

  • Leads to plaque formation

  • Plaques disrupt calcium concentration, accumulate on mitochondria, induce apoptosis


Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

  • Research from Drs. Yang and Meadowcroft at the Penn State Hershey Med Center, Center for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Research.


Nucleic acids

Nucleic Acids

  • Store and transmit hereditary information

    • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

    • RNA (ribonucleic acid)

    • Both have monomer nucleotides

  • Nucleotides 3 parts

    • Nitrogenous Base: adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine, uralic

    • Pentose: 5 carbon sugar

    • Phosphate:


Nucleic acid structure

Nucleic Acid Structure


Dna rna

DNA & RNA

  • DNA is the molecule of heredity

    • Double stranded helix

    • Composed of

      • Adenine

      • Thymine

      • Cytosine

      • Guanine

      • G bonds C

      • A bonds T

  • RNA

    • Single Stranded

    • Composed of

      • Adenine

      • Cytosine

      • Guanine

      • Uracil


Monomer polymer summary table

Monomer & Polymer Summary Table


Concept check

Concept Check

  • Which two functional groups are always found in amino acids?

  • Describe why phospholipids are important components of cell membranes, based on their structure and properties

  • Hydrolysis is involved in

    • A. Formation of starch

    • B. hydrogen bond formation between nucleic acids

    • C. Peptide bond formation of proteins

    • They hydrophilic interactions of lipids

    • The digestion of maltose to glucose

  • Compare and Contrast DNA vs RNA


Concept check responses

Concept Check Responses

  • Carboxyl (the acid part), amino (the amino part)

  • Polar head, apolar tail, bilayer, fluid, semipermeable membrane

  • E is correct, hydrolysis, hydro-water, lysis-splits. Look for a large polymer split to monomer.

  • DNA double stranded RNA Single stranded, DNA Thymidine, RNA Uracil, DNA deoxyribose, RNA ribose


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