- 115 Views
- Uploaded on

Download Presentation
## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Tools of Environmental Science' - mallory-flores

**An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation**

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript

### Tools of Environmental Science

Chapter 2

The Experimental (Scientific) Method

- Series of steps that scientists worldwide
- Observation -the process of obtaining information by using the senses
- 1. Problem or Question - to be asked
- 2. Hypothesis - a theory or explanation that is based on observations and that can be tested
- Predictions - statements made in advance that express the results that will be obtained from testing a hypothesis if the hypothesis is supported.

Hypothesis must be in If-Then-Because

- 3. Experiments - procedures carried out under controlled conditions to discover, demonstrate, or test a fact, theory, truth
- Good Experiments have two things:
- 1. Variable - factor that changes in an experiment in order to test a hypothesis
- 2. Control - group in the experiment that serves as a standards of comparison
- Manipulated (experimental) Variable– one factor that is changed in the experiment
- Responsive Variable– the resulting change in the experiment

Organizing and Analyzing Data

- 4. Data - pieces of information acquired through observation or experimentation
- Graphing the information makes the trends presented in tables easier to see.

Drawing Conclusions

- Analyzing the data and comparing the outcome of their experiments with the hypothesis
- Claims / Evidence
- The conclusion must tie into the question, hypothesis and supported with data

Repetition and Communication

- Scientists often repeat their experiments
- Scientists look for a large amount of supporting evidence before they accept a hypothesis.
- Scientists publish their results
- Correlation studies are done when experiments are not possible to look at evidence therefore

Scientific Habits of Mind

- Curiosity
- Habit of Skepticism
- Openness to new ideas
- Intellectual honesty
- Imagination and Creativity

Statistics and Models

- Statistics - collection and classification of data in the form of numbers it helps to summarize, characterize, analyze, and compare data
- Mean– add up data and then divide by the number of individuals
- Distribution - range

Normal forms bell

Shaped curve

Probability– likelihood that a possible future event will occur in any given instance of the event expressed 0-1 as a decimal

- Risk is the probability of an unwanted outcome.

Models

- Models-patterns, plans, representations, or descriptions designed to show the structure, workings of an object, system or concept
- Various types of models:
- Physical – 3 D model you can touch (DNA)
- Graphical – Maps and charts
- Conceptual – graphics or flow charts
- Mathematical – uses equations

Values - principles or standards that an individual considers to be important

Decision-making model -conceptual model that provides a systematic process for making decisions

- Starting point in issues affecting the environments
- Be sure to consider you values, weigh the pros and cons, and keep in mind both the short-term and long-term consequences of your decision
- 1. Gather information
- 2. Consider values
- 3. Explore consequences
- 4. Make a decision

Download Presentation

Connecting to Server..