Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts
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Like a recipe: Reactants Products 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l) coefficients subscripts PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Balancing Eqns. Like a recipe: Reactants Products 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l) coefficients subscripts. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces (s)solid (l)liquid (pure liquid) (aq)aqueous (dissolved in water) (g) or  gas. Balancing.

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Like a recipe: Reactants Products 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l) coefficients subscripts

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Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Balancing Eqns

Like a recipe:

ReactantsProducts

2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(l)

coefficients subscripts


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Balancing Eqns

Symbols

Yields or Produces

(s)solid

(l)liquid (pure liquid)

(aq)aqueous (dissolved in water)

(g) or gas


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Balancing

Copper(II) Chloride reacts with Iron(III) Sulfate to form Copper(II)Sulfate and Iron(III) Chloride

Aluminum nitrate reacts with Sodium hydroxide to form Aluminum hydroxide and Sodium nitrate


Some types of reactions

Some Types of Reactions

1. Synthesis

Al + Cl2 AlCl3

CaO(s) + CO2(g)  CaCO3(s)

  • Decomposition

    HgO(s)  Hg(l) + O2(g)

    CaCO3(s)  CaO(s) + CO2(g)


Some types of reactions1

Some Types of Reactions

  • Combustion

    Fe + O2 Fe2O3

    C4H10 + O2  CO2 + H2O

  • Other Types

    Single Replacement

    Double Replacement


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Know your reactions well!!!!


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Stoichiometry

Mole

1 dozen = 12 items

1 mole = 6.022 X 1023 atoms/molecules

1 gram hydrogen = 6.022 X 1023 atoms of hydrogen


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Stoichiometry

GramsMolesAtoms

1 g H1 mole H6.02 X 1023 atms

2 g H

12 g C

36 g C

48 g O


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Stoichiometry

GramsMolesMoleculesAtoms

16 g CH4

8 g CH4

88 g CO2

131 g Ba(NO3)2


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Molar Mass

1.Molar Mass = mass of one mole

2.Element= atomic mass

1 mole of O = 16.0 grams

3. Molecule or Compound – sum of all the atoms


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Molar Mass

Calculate the molar mass of

Barium

O2

BaCl2?

Fe2(SO4)3?


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

GMA

Grams

Moles

Atoms

  • How many C atoms are present in 18.0 g? (Ans: 9.03 X 1023 C)

  • What is the mass of 1.20 X 1024 atoms of Na? (Ans: 45.8 grams)


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

GMA

3.What is the mass of 1.51 X 1023 atoms of Be?(Ans: 2.26 g)

5.How many atoms and grams are in 0.400 mol of Radium? (Ans: 90.4 g, 2.41 X 1023 atoms)


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

GMMA

1.Monoatomic Elements (C, Fe, Au)

GMA

2.Molecules and Ionics (H2O, CaCl2, O2)

GMMA


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

GMMA

3.Molecules and formula units work the same when converting

Molecules = Molecular Comps

Formula Units = Ionic Compounds

G

M

M

A


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

GMMA

  • How many calcium and chlorine atoms are in 200.0 grams of Calcium Chloride?

    (Ans: 2.17 X 1024 atoms Cl)


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

GMMA

2. How many hydrogen and oxygen atoms are in 3.60 grams of H2O? (Ans: 2.41 X 1023 atoms H)


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

GMMA

  • Given 3.01X1024 molecules of SO3, find everything else.

  • Given 3.01 X 1022 molecules of Iron(III)bromide, find everything else.


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Mixed Examples

1.How many carbon atoms are in 36.0 grams of carbon (1.81 X 1024)

2.How many carbon atoms are in 36.0 grams of C2H6? (Ans:1.45 X 1024 atoms of C)


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Mixed Examples

Homework Problems (find everything else)

a) 10.0 g C

b) 10.0 g C2H6

c) 4.0 X 1023 atoms of S

d) 4.0 X 1023 molecules of SO2

e) 0.44 moles of SO2


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Empirical Formula

1.Empirical formula - simplest ratio of the elements in a compound

2.FormulaEmpirical Form.

C2H2

Al4S6

C6H12O6

C12H24O12


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Empirical Formula

1.What is the EF of a compound that has 0.900 g Ca and 1.60 g Cl?

Rules

- Go to moles

- Divide by the smaller


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Empirical Formula

2. What is the EF of a compound that is 66.0 % Ca and 34.0% P?

3. What is the EF of a compound that is 43.7 % P and 56.3 % O?


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Molecular Formula

1.Empirical –ratios of the elements

2.Molecular –true number of each element


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Molecular Formula

EFMF

CH2OCH2O (30 g/mol)

C2H4O2 (60 g/mol)

C3H6O3 (90 g/mol)

C4H8O4 (120 g/mol)


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Molecular Formula

1.What is the MF of benzene if it has an EF of CH and a molar mass of 78.0 g?

2. What is the MF of a compound that is 40.9% C, 4.58 % H and 54.5 % O? It has a molar mass between 350 and 360 g/mol.


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Reaction Stoich.

What coefficients mean:

2 Na+Cl2 2NaCl

2 Na1 Cl22NaCl

4 Na

6 Na


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Reaction Stoich.

2 Na+Cl2 2NaCl

4 Cl2

2 moles Na

10 moles Na

ONLY WORKS FOR MOLES AND MOLECULES


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Reaction Stoich.

1.How many moles of H2 and O2 must react to form 6 moles of H2O?

2.How many moles of KCl and O2 are formed from the decomposition of 6 moles of KClO3?


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Reaction Stoich.

  • How many grams of oxygen are needed to react with 14.6 g of Na to form Na2O? (Ans: 5.08 g)

  • How many grams of P4 and O2 are needed to make 3.62 g of P2O5? (Ans: 1.58 g, 2.04 g)


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Reaction Stoich.

5. What mass of oxygen is needed to react with 16.7 g of iron to form Iron(III)oxide? (Ans: 7.18 g)

4Fe + 3O2 2Fe2O3


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Calculate the mass of sodium bromide and oxygen that are formed from the decomposition of 50.0 grams of sodium bromate (NaBrO3).

(34.1 g NaBr, 15.9 g O2)


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Limiting Reactant

  • Sandwich analogy:

    13 slices of bread

    4 pieces of turkey

    Maximum # of sandwiches?

    2. Limiting Reactant – Totally consumed in a reaction. No leftovers


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Limiting Reactant

  • How many grams of H2SO4 can be formed from the rxn of 5.00 moles of SO3 and 2.00 moles of H2O?

    SO3 + H2O  H2SO4

    (Ans: 196 g)


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Limiting Reactant

  • How many grams of H2O can be formed from the rxn of 6.00 moles of H2 and 4.00 moles of O2?

    O2 + H2 H2O


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Limiting Reactant

2. How many grams of NaCl can be formed from the reaction of 0.300 mol of Na and 0.100 mol of Cl2?

2Na + Cl2 2NaCl

(Ans: 11.7 g)


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Limiting Reactant

  • How many grams of Ag can be formed from the rxn of 2.00 g of Zn and 2.50 g of silver nitrate? How much excess reactant remains?

    Zn + AgNO3 Ag + Zn(NO3)2

    (Ans: 1.59 g Ag, 1.52 g xs zinc)


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Limiting Reactant

  • How many grams of Ba3(PO4)2 can be formed from the rxn of 3.50 g of Na3PO4 and 6.40 g of Ba(NO3)2?

    Na3PO4 + Ba(NO3)2 Ba3(PO4)2 + NaNO3

    (Ans: 4.92 g)


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Limiting Reactant

  • How many grams of Ag2S can be formed from the rxn of 15.6 g of Ag and 2.97 g of H2S? (Assume O2 is in excess)

    4Ag + 2H2S + O2 2Ag2S + 2H2O

    (Ans: 18.1 g)


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Percent Yield

  • Formula:

    Actual Yield X 100 = % Yield

    Theoretical Yield


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Percent Yield

  • What is the % yield if you start with 10.00 grams of C and obtain 1.49 g of H2 gas?

    C + H2O  CO + H2

    (Ans: 89.4%)


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Percent Yield

  • Carbon was heated strongly in sulfur(S8) to form carbon disulfide. What is the percent yield if you start with 13.51 g of sulfur and collect 12.5 g of CS2?

    4C + S8 4CS2

    (Ans: 78.0%)


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

Percent Yield

3. 36.7 grams of CO2 were formed from the rxn of 40.0 g of CH3OH and 46.0 g of O2. What is the % yield?

2CH3OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 4H2O

(ANS: 87%)


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

In this experiment, magnesium chloride was prepared and its empirical formula was compared to the accepted formula of MgCl2. To prepare magnesium chloride, 0.40 grams of magnesium powder was combined with 10 mL of 0.10 M HCl. The mixture was allowed to react, and heated to dryness. The mass of the resulting crystals was used to calculate the empirical formula. The average calculated formula of MgCl1.8 had a 10% error and a range was 0.40 chlorine atoms. This procedure was not effective because while it was accurate, it was not precise.


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

8a) SO3 + H2O  H2SO4

  • B2S3 + 6H2O  2H3BO3 + 3H2S

  • 4PH3 + 8O2 6H2O + P4O10

  • 2Hg(NO3)2 2HgO + 4NO2 + O2

  • Cu + 2H2SO4  CuSO4 + SO2 + 2H2O


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

  • a) 6 1 214.a) 1 1 1

    b) 1 3 2b) 1 6 2 3

    c) 2 2 1 4c) 1 2 2 1

    d) 1 6 3 2d) 2 2 4 1

    e) 3 2 1 6e) 1 2 1 1 2

    f) 2 1 1 2

    g) 4 9 4 10 2


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

  • a) 4Al + 3O2 2Al2O3

    b) Cu(OH)2  CuO + H2O

    c) C7H16 + 11O2  7CO2 + 8H2O

    d) 2C5H12O + 15O2  10CO2 + 12H2O

  • 2 9 6 6

    1 1 2

    1 6 5 3

    1 3 2

    1 1 2

  • a) 44.0 g/molb) 122.0 g/mol

    c) 58.3 g/mold) 60.0 g/mol e) 130.0 amu


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

24. 26.0 g/mole92.3% C

176.0 g/mole4.5% H

132.1 g/mole6.1% H

300.1 g/mole65.01% Pt

272.0 g/mole11.8% O

305.0 g/mole70.8 % C


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

  • a)K3PO4b) Na2SiF6c) C12H12N2O3

  • a) H2C2O4b) C4H8O2

  • a) C13H18O2b) C5H14N2c) C9H13O3N


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

58.a) 0.800 mol CO2b) 14.7 g C6H12O6

c) 7.16 g CO2

60.a) 0.939 mol Fe2O3b) 78.9 g CO

c) 105 g Fed) 229 g= 229 g


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

  • a) H2C2O4b) C4H8O2

    50. a) C13H8O2b)C5H14N2

    c) C9H13O3N

  • a) 0.800 mol CO2b) 14.7 g C6H12O6

    c) 7.18 g CO2

  • a) Fe2O3 + 3CO  2Fe + 3CO2

    b) 78.9 g CO2

    c) 124 g CO2

    d) 229 g = 229 g


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

  • a) CaH2 + 2H2O  Ca(OH)2 + 2H2

    b) 88.75 g CaH2

    64. a) 15.6 mol O2b) 35.0 g O2c) 9175.1 g

  • 0.167 mol Al2(SO4)3 form

    0.333 mol Al(OH)3 react

    0.167 mol AL(OH)3 remain

  • a) O2 is limiting reactant

    b) 1.86 g H2O produced

    c) 0.329 g NH3 remain

    d) 4.25 g = 4.25 g


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

  • 5.24 g H2SO46.99 g PbSO4

    2.77 g HC2H3O2

  • C2H6 + Cl2 C2H5Cl + HCl

    232 g C2H5Cl (theoretical yield)

    88.8% yield

    80. Actual yield of Na2S = 1.80 g (1.95 g is the theoretical yield)


Like a recipe reactants products 2h 2 g o 2 g 2h 2 o l coefficients subscripts

The atmosphere of Jupiter is composed almost entirely of hydrogen (H2) and helium (He). If the average molar mass of Jupiter’s atmosphere is 2.254 g/mole, calculate the percent composition.


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