Organelles
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Organelles. Control: *Nucleus (plant and animal) Assembly, Transport, and Storage: *Nucleolus(plant and animal) *Endoplasmic reticulum (plant and animal) *Ribosomes(plant and animal) *Golgi apparatus (plant and animal) *Vacuoles (plant and animal)

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Organelles

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Organelles

Organelles

  • Control:

    *Nucleus (plant and animal)

  • Assembly, Transport, and Storage:

    *Nucleolus(plant and animal)

    *Endoplasmic reticulum (plant and animal)

    *Ribosomes(plant and animal)

    *Golgi apparatus (plant and animal)

    *Vacuoles (plant and animal)

    -one BIG one in plants; multiple small ones in animals

    *Lysosomes(plant and animal)

  • Energy transformations:

    *Chloroplasts(plant only)

    *mitochondria (plant and animal)


Nucleus

Nucleus

  • Contains most of eukaryotic cell’s genetic library (mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own DNA…)

  • Largest organelle

  • Enclosed by nuclear envelope or membrane, which is a double membrane – each of which is a lipid bilayer!!!

  • Nuclear envelope has pores in it

  • Contains inactive DNA – chromatin


Nucleolus

Nucleolus

  • Prominent structure in non-dividing nucleus

  • Ribosomal RNA and ribosomal subunits are made here


Figure 7 9 the nucleus and its envelope

Figure 7.9 The nucleus and its envelope 


Endoplasmic reticulum highway system

Endoplasmic reticulum – “highway system”

  • EXTENSIVE – accounts for more than half the total membrane system in eukaryotic cells

  • Name means “little net within the cytoplasm”

  • Smooth and rough e.r. are actually connected, not distinct, separate sections

  • Job is to transport materials quickly from one place to another in cell


Figure 7 11 endoplasmic reticulum er

Figure 7.11 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)


Smooth e r

Smooth e.r.

  • Functions in synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detoxification of drugs and poisons

    *Lipids – oils, phospholipids, steroids

    (sex hormones and adrenal hormones)

    *Liver cells – glycogen; gets converted to glucose phosphate which cannot leave cell, so e.r. makes enzyme that converts this to glucose

    *Detox – liver; adds hydroxyl groups to drugs, makes them soluble and able to be flushed out of body


Rough e r

Rough e.r.

  • Makes secretory proteins

    (ex. Insulin made by pancreatic cells)

  • Most are glycoproteins (proteins covalently bound to carbs)

  • Rough e.r. is also a membrane factory – grows by adding proteins and phospholipids; parts can be taken from here and added to other membrane systems using the vesicles for transport


Ribosomes protein factories

Ribosomes“protein factories”

  • Sites of protein synthesis

  • Are made of rRNA and protein

  • Cells with high rates of protein synthesis have MANY ribosomes (human pancreas cell has MILLIONS of ribosomes)

  • Are “free” ribosomes in cytosol that make proteins for the cell that they are INSIDE of

  • Ribosomes that are attached to endoplasmic reticulum (bound) are making proteins for packaging and export OUTSIDE OF CELL


Figure 7 10 ribosomes

Figure 7.10 Ribosomes


Golgi apparatus gift wrapper ups system

Golgi apparatus“Gift wrapper/UPS system”

  • Finishes, sorts, ships cell products

  • Golgi will modify products as needed – gives more variety by removing some monomers and substituting others


Figure 7 12 the golgi apparatus

Figure 7.12 The Golgi apparatus


Vacuoles bank vaults or trash cans

Vacuoles“Bank Vaults” or “trash cans”

  • Sites of storage in cells

    *good things stored – water, minerals,

    food etc.

    *bad things stored – broken down cell parts, waste


Lysosomes suicide bags

Lysosomes“suicide bags”

  • Membrane-bounded sac of hydrolytic enzymes

  • Different lysosomes break down each of the major classes of macromolecules – proteins, polysaccharides, fats, nucleic acids

  • Work best at pH of 5

  • Used in autophagy – recycle the cell’s own organic material for use


Mitochondria and chloroplasts powerhouses

Mitochondria and Chloroplasts“powerhouses”

  • Mitochondria – carry on cellular respiration – sites of energy production in cell (glucose broken down to produce ATP)

  • Chloroplasts – carry on photosynthesis

    – sites where sunlight, CO2 and water are converted into glucose


Figure 7 17 the mitochondrion site of cellular respiration

Figure 7.17 The mitochondrion, site of cellular respiration


Figure 7 18 the chloroplast site of photosynthesis

Figure 7.18 The chloroplast, site of photosynthesis


Other structural components of cell

Other structural components of cell…

  • Cytoskeleton

  • Cilia and flagella


Cytoskeleton hay in mud makes bricks

Cytoskeleton“hay in mud makes bricks”

  • Network of fibers extending into cytoplasm of cell

  • Provides structural support, and aids in cell motility and cell regulation

  • Made up of microtubules (thickest), microtubules (thinnest), and intermediate filaments


Cilia and flagella hairs and tails

Cilia and Flagella“hairs and tails”

  • Cilia are short projections from cell body – hair-like

  • flagella are much longer – whip-like

  • Movement may not be for entire organism; may be part of a larger unit – ex. Cilia lining windpipe propel foreign substances out…


Organelles do not work alone

Organelles do not work alone…

  • Cell is a dynamic interaction of ALL of its parts – literally, the basic unit of life….


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