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Organelles. Control: *Nucleus (plant and animal) Assembly, Transport, and Storage: *Nucleolus (plant and animal) *Endoplasmic reticulum (plant and animal) *Ribosomes (plant and animal) *Golgi apparatus (plant and animal) *Vacuoles (plant and animal)

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organelles
Organelles
  • Control:

*Nucleus (plant and animal)

  • Assembly, Transport, and Storage:

*Nucleolus (plant and animal)

*Endoplasmic reticulum (plant and animal)

*Ribosomes (plant and animal)

*Golgi apparatus (plant and animal)

*Vacuoles (plant and animal)

-one BIG one in plants; multiple small ones in animals

*Lysosomes (plant and animal)

  • Energy transformations:

*Chloroplasts (plant only)

*mitochondria (plant and animal)

nucleus
Nucleus
  • Contains most of eukaryotic cell’s genetic library (mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own DNA…)
  • Largest organelle
  • Enclosed by nuclear envelope or membrane, which is a double membrane – each of which is a lipid bilayer!!!
  • Nuclear envelope has pores in it
  • Contains inactive DNA – chromatin
nucleolus
Nucleolus
  • Prominent structure in non-dividing nucleus
  • Ribosomal RNA and ribosomal subunits are made here
endoplasmic reticulum highway system
Endoplasmic reticulum – “highway system”
  • EXTENSIVE – accounts for more than half the total membrane system in eukaryotic cells
  • Name means “little net within the cytoplasm”
  • Smooth and rough e.r. are actually connected, not distinct, separate sections
  • Job is to transport materials quickly from one place to another in cell
smooth e r
Smooth e.r.
  • Functions in synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detoxification of drugs and poisons

*Lipids – oils, phospholipids, steroids

(sex hormones and adrenal hormones)

*Liver cells – glycogen; gets converted to glucose phosphate which cannot leave cell, so e.r. makes enzyme that converts this to glucose

*Detox – liver; adds hydroxyl groups to drugs, makes them soluble and able to be flushed out of body

rough e r
Rough e.r.
  • Makes secretory proteins

(ex. Insulin made by pancreatic cells)

  • Most are glycoproteins (proteins covalently bound to carbs)
  • Rough e.r. is also a membrane factory – grows by adding proteins and phospholipids; parts can be taken from here and added to other membrane systems using the vesicles for transport
ribosomes protein factories
Ribosomes“protein factories”
  • Sites of protein synthesis
  • Are made of rRNA and protein
  • Cells with high rates of protein synthesis have MANY ribosomes (human pancreas cell has MILLIONS of ribosomes)
  • Are “free” ribosomes in cytosol that make proteins for the cell that they are INSIDE of
  • Ribosomes that are attached to endoplasmic reticulum (bound) are making proteins for packaging and export OUTSIDE OF CELL
golgi apparatus gift wrapper ups system
Golgi apparatus“Gift wrapper/UPS system”
  • Finishes, sorts, ships cell products
  • Golgi will modify products as needed – gives more variety by removing some monomers and substituting others
vacuoles bank vaults or trash cans
Vacuoles“Bank Vaults” or “trash cans”
  • Sites of storage in cells

*good things stored – water, minerals,

food etc.

*bad things stored – broken down cell parts, waste

lysosomes suicide bags
Lysosomes“suicide bags”
  • Membrane-bounded sac of hydrolytic enzymes
  • Different lysosomes break down each of the major classes of macromolecules – proteins, polysaccharides, fats, nucleic acids
  • Work best at pH of 5
  • Used in autophagy – recycle the cell’s own organic material for use
mitochondria and chloroplasts powerhouses
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts“powerhouses”
  • Mitochondria – carry on cellular respiration – sites of energy production in cell (glucose broken down to produce ATP)
  • Chloroplasts – carry on photosynthesis

– sites where sunlight, CO2 and water are converted into glucose

other structural components of cell
Other structural components of cell…
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Cilia and flagella
cytoskeleton hay in mud makes bricks
Cytoskeleton“hay in mud makes bricks”
  • Network of fibers extending into cytoplasm of cell
  • Provides structural support, and aids in cell motility and cell regulation
  • Made up of microtubules (thickest), microtubules (thinnest), and intermediate filaments
cilia and flagella hairs and tails
Cilia and Flagella“hairs and tails”
  • Cilia are short projections from cell body – hair-like
  • flagella are much longer – whip-like
  • Movement may not be for entire organism; may be part of a larger unit – ex. Cilia lining windpipe propel foreign substances out…
organelles do not work alone
Organelles do not work alone…
  • Cell is a dynamic interaction of ALL of its parts – literally, the basic unit of life….
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