History of marine science
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History of Marine Science. 10,000 B.C. – 800 A.D. Homework. Read Chapter 2 Pages 2- 10 Answer study questions 1-5 p 2-4 Be prepared to answer the two questions on page 2-2 in class What are the 3 reasons to learn the history of Oceanography?

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History of Marine Science

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History of Marine Science

10,000 B.C. – 800 A.D.


Homework

  • Read Chapter 2

  • Pages 2- 10

  • Answer study questions 1-5 p 2-4

  • Be prepared to answer the two questions on page 2-2 in class

  • What are the 3 reasons to learn the history of Oceanography?

  • What are the four main stages in the history of oceanography?


In The Begining

_________ people used bone to make harpoons.

__________ people made fishing hooks and nets more than 10,000 years ago.


________- refuse (garbage dump) of shells and bones found in piles near beachfronts. Give clues to what was eaten by these prehistoric peoples.


From Shore to Water

Simple rafts such as these trees lashed together were mans first attempts at navigation. Man’s first relationship with the sea was based on the finding of _____.


Paleolithic people made bone ___________ to fish from shore.

  • Nets

  • Fishing Hooks

  • Harpoons

  • Knives


Over 10,000 years ago _________ people made fishing nets and hooks to fish.

  • Neolithic

  • Paleolithic

  • Modern

  • No


A Midden is a garbage dump.

  • True

  • False


Fastest Responders (in seconds)


The first sea voyage?

  • The earliest recorded sea voyage took place around ___________under the leadership of the Egyptian Pharaoh Snefru

  • Historians and Scientists believe that seafaring was commonplace for some time before that in ancient Egypt


Other firsts…..

  • First voyage of exploration documented around _________ B.C.

  • Egyptians entombed an entire ship (reed boat) in the _____________________

  • This gives us the earliest glimpse of a ancient ship building


Boat of ________


The Phoenicians

  • The Phoenician Empire centered in what is now modern day Libya is today

  • The established the first _______ ______ _________ as far as the British Isles.

Early Phoenician Coin depicting Phoenician war ship

Notice the Sea Monster!


The Oldest Shipwreck

  • Marine Archeologist _________found this ship which dates back to around _______ (King Tut was the Pharaoh of Egypt at the time of its sailing)

The ship itself has disappeared but the cargo remained largely intact


Phoenician Ships

Early Design

War Ship


Polynesian explorers

______years ago Polynesian

and Micronesian

navigators were making

some of mankind’s

greatest voyages of

discovery. Within 2500

years they had settled

almost every island in the

Pacific – an area of about

_______ _____________


Simple yet extremely effective!!

  • Imagine Traveling thousands of miles on the open ocean in one of these


The Earliest Navigation Aids

A __________________

______is a sophisticated

navigation aid based on

knowledge the directions

of approaching swells as

well as wave refraction.

Polynesians also used the stars to explore

Micronesia in their double-hulled canoes.


Still used by some to this day!

Marshallese sailors

navigating with a

“stick chart.”


Kon Tiki

  • In 1947 _______ _____________

    built a replica of a _________________

    to see if such a craft was capable of sailing thousands of miles in the open ocean. Sailing from Peru to

  • Movie and Book were produced from this adventure

  • The trip lasted _____ days and the 5 men traveled over ______ ________


The Kon Tiki Raft at the Kon Tiki Museum in Oslo Norway


Earliest recorded sea voyage was by the

  • Polynesians

  • Egyptians

  • Phoenicians

  • Europeans


The earliest surviving ship was entombed in the

  • Pyramid of Snefru

  • Pyramid of Khufu

  • Pyramid of Tut

  • None of the above


The Marine Archeologist who found the oldest shipwreck

  • Robert Ballard

  • George Bass

  • James Cook

  • John Harrison


The Polynesians sailed the ________ Ocean in double hulled canoes

  • Atlantic

  • Indian

  • Pacific

  • Polynesian


The Kon Tiki voyage lasted

  • 2 weeks

  • 1 year

  • 196 days

  • 101 days


Fastest Responders (in seconds)


Greek Exploration and Discovery

  • Greek contributions are mainly in the areas of Navigation and Cartography (map making)

  • _________ determined that tides can be predicted based on the phases of the Moon.

Born: 380 ADDied: 310 AD.


  • Eratosthenes calculated the circumference of the earth. He also invented the first Latitude Longitude system (irregular)

  • __________ improved on his system and we still use this regular grid system today!

  • Over 2000 years later!!!!

Hipparchus

Eratosthenes


Maps

  • ____________ – the “Father of History”

    Publishes _____________ in 450 BC

    No copies survive

    This is what they

    Believe it looked

    like


______ determined that tides can be predicted based on the phases of the Moon

  • Eratosthenes

  • Hipparchus

  • Pytheas

  • Plato


__________ published the first map of 450 BC

  • Herodotus

  • Aristophanes

  • Hipparchus

  • Eratosthenes


The grid system invented and perfected by the Greeks is know today as

  • Graphing

  • Latitude and Longitude

  • GPS

  • Mapping


Fastest Responders (in seconds)


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