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OUTLINE 6 VI. Morphogenesis A. General features of gastrulation B. Cell movement PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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OUTLINE 6 VI. Morphogenesis A. General features of gastrulation B. Cell movement 1. extension and contraction 2. adhesion C. Gastrulation in the sea urchin D. Gastrulation in the frog E. Three layers of cells 1. ectoderm 2. mesoderm 3. endoderm F. Neurulation.

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OUTLINE 6 VI. Morphogenesis A. General features of gastrulation B. Cell movement

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Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

OUTLINE 6

VI. Morphogenesis

A. General features of gastrulation

B. Cell movement

1. extension and contraction

2. adhesion

C. Gastrulation in the sea urchin

D. Gastrulation in the frog

E. Three layers of cells

1. ectoderm

2. mesoderm

3. endoderm

F. Neurulation


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

animal pole

vegetal pole


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

After this point, Protostomes and Deuterostomes depart


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Echinoderms

Chordates

Annelids

Arthropods

Mollusks

Protostomes

Deuterostomes

Acoelomates

TIME


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

EGG

MORULA


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

SEA URCHIN BLASTULA


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Fig 47.16


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Fig 47.9

Animal pole

Blastocoel

Vegetal pole

Start of invagination

(blastopore)


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Fig 47.9

Archenteron


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Fig 47.9

Archenteron

Mouth

Digestive tract

Anus


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Fig 47.9

Archenteron

endoderm

ectoderm

mesoderm


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Fig 47.7


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Fig 47.7


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Fig 47.8

FROG

BLASTULA


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Fig 47.10


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Frog blastula

blastocoel

Dorsal lip.

The invagination for gastrulation starts here


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Fig 47.10


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Fig 47.10


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Fig 47.10


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Scanning

Election

Micrographs


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Fig. 47.11

Neurulation in the frog


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

OUTLINE 7

VII. Mechanisms of Animal Development

A. Cytoplasmic determinants

1. axes of symmetry in amphibians

2. bicoid gene in Drosophila

B. Cell communication

1. Holtfreter’s work

2. mechanisms of cell recognition

3. induction

C. Morphogens and pattern formation (chick limb bud)

D. Hormones (in amphibian development)

1. pattern of metamorphosis

2. role of thyroxin

3. evidence


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

ectoderm

mesoderm

endoderm

1. dissociation

3. resegregation

2. reaggregation

Holtfretter 1955


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Spemann and Mangold: an organizer

Fig. 47.22


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Pattern formation: the chick limb bud

Fig. 47.24


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Pattern formation: the chick limb bud

Fig. 47.24


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Tadpole

Aquatic

Gills

Herbivorous

Swimming

Frog

Terrestrial

Lungs

Carnivorous

Jumping

metamorphosis


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

How do hormones turn on and off the genes that control development?


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Fig. 21.23

Development in the fly


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Fig. 21.24

Determination of anterior -

posterior axis in the fly


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Natural variation in hormone levels can cause developmental plasticity


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Bigger is better!

Pond dries,

metamorphosis

or death

larger

Size of

tadpole

smaller

Time


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Stage 36

C

O

Stage 27

C

20 mm

20 mm

O

Stage 42

C

O

Omnivore

Carnivore


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Comparison of beaks of spadefoot tadpoles

Omnivore

Carnivore


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

larger

Size of

tadpole

smaller

Time

Pond dries,

metamorphosis


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Natural and experimental variation in hormone levels can change the timing of development and metamorphosis: this provides an avenue for evolutionary innovation


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Evolution of Vertebrate body plan


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Amphioxus

Larva

Heterochrony

Neoteny

Paedomorphosis

Adult


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Chemical pollutants can influence hormones and alter development


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Lake Apopka


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

higher

Concentration

of toxins in

water

lower

Lake Woodruff

Lake Apopka


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

larger

Alligator

penis

size

smaller

Lake Woodruff

Lake Apopka


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

larger

Alligator

penis

size

smaller

lower

higher

Concentration of toxins in water


Outline 6 vi morphogenesis a general features of gastrulation b cell movement

Effects of Atrazine on frog development


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