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Understanding HIV and AIDS. Defining Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).

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Understanding HIV and AIDS

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Understanding hiv and aids

Understanding HIV and AIDS

Defining human immunodeficiency virus hiv

Defining Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

  • A virus that attacks the bodies immune system. HIV is attracted to white blood cells called CD4s. It invades the WBC and reproduces millions of viral strands within a mere day. Then the WBC dies leaving the body without a form of defense to fight off other viruses, infections, bacteria, cancers, etc.

Is hiv and aids the same thing

Is HIV and AIDS the same thing?


Defining acquired immunodeficiency syndrome aids

Defining Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

  • AIDS is caused by HIV. It is the last stage of the HIV infection.

  • When the immune system becomes so weak that it can no longer defend the body against any pathogen whether normal intestinal bacteria or external bacteria, viruses, cancer, parasites, etc. These are called opportunistic infections which do not make healthy people sick.



  • AIDS was first reported in the United States in 1981 and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. More than 830,000 cases of AIDS have been reported in the U.S. since 1981. As many as 950,000 Americans may be infected with HIV, 25% of whom are unaware of their infection. The epidemic is growing rapidly among minority populations and is the leading killer in African-American males age 25-44.

How is hiv transmitted

How is HIV Transmitted?

  • Unprotected sexual relationships with an infected partner.

  • Contact with infected blood.

  • Needle sharing/Needle sticks

  • Pregnancy/birth/breast milk transmission from mother to baby.

  • Blood/Blood Component transfusions prior to 1985.

Unprotected sexual contact with an infected partner

Unprotected Sexual Contactwith an Infected Partner!

  • The virus can enter the body through the lining of the vagina, female external genitalia, penis, rectum or mouth during sex.

Contact with infected blood

Contact with Infected Blood

  • This includes all scenarios relating to the cross contamination of blood.

    Example: Touching another person’s blood without gloves and having open sore on your hand.

Needle sharing needle sticks

Needle Sharing & Needle Sticks

  • Frequently spread among injection drug users by sharing of needles or syringes contaminated with very small quantities of blood from someone infected with HIV.

  • Rarely spread by accidental sticks with contaminated needles or other medical instruments.

Pregnancy birth breast milk transmission from mother to baby

Pregnancy/Birth/Breast Milk Transmission from Mother to Baby.

Approximately 25%-33% of all untreated pregnant women infected with HIV will pass the infection to their babies.

If the mother is treated with AZT (antiretroviral drug for HIV) and deliver Cesarean section, the chances of the baby being infected can be reduced to a rate of 1%. WOW!!

Blood blood components transfusions prior to 1985

Blood/Blood Components Transfusions prior to 1985

  • Before 1985 blood was not screened for evidence of HIV infection.

  • Before heat treating techniques to destroy HIV in blood products were introduced.

  • EXTREMELY SMALL RISK NOW due to screening and heat treatment. The tests are more than 99% accurate now(ARC, 1998).

Summary of hiv transmission

Summary ofHIV Transmission?

  • Blood

  • Sexual Contact

  • Birth

Fluids that are not currently known to spread hiv unless they contain visible blood

Fluids that are not currently known to spread HIV, UNLESS THEY CONTAIN VISIBLE BLOOD!

  • Feces

  • Nasal Secretions

  • Saliva

  • Sweat

  • Tears

  • Urine

  • Vomit

You can not get hiv from


  • Coughing, sneezing or spitting.

  • Eating foods prepared or served by someone else.

  • Drinking fountains.

  • Toilets or showers.

  • Chairs, desks, pencils or paper.

  • Computers and other classroom equipment.

  • Playground equipment and swimming pools

  • Mosquitoes or other insects

  • Social kisses or hugs.

Hiv can infect anyone who practices risky behaviors


  • Sharing drug needles or syringes.

  • Having sexual contact with an infected person person without using a CONDOM.

  • Having sexual contact with someone whose HIV status is unknown (25% do not know they are infected).

Symptoms of hiv


  • Many people do not have any symptoms when they first become infected with HIV.

  • Some do have flu-like illness within a month or two after exposure to the virus.

Symptoms of hiv flu like illness


  • Fever

  • Headache

  • Tiredness

  • Enlarged lymph glands (glands in the immune system easily felt in the neck and groin)

Length of symptoms


  • Usually the symptoms will disappear within a week to a month and are mistakes for those of a viral infection.

  • More persistent or severe symptoms may not appear for 10 years.

Other symptoms experienced months to years before the onset of aids

Other Symptoms Experienced Months to Years Before the Onset of AIDS.

  • Lack of energy

  • Weight loss

  • Frequent fever and sweats

  • Persistent or frequent yeast infections (oral or vaginal)

  • Persistent skin rashes or flaky skin

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease in women that is not responding to treatment

  • Short-term memory loss

When does a person have aids

When does a person have AIDS?

  • A term that applies to the most advanced form of HIV infection.

  • CDC defines this as being HIV+ and have a white blood cell (CD4 + T cells) of 200 or less per cubic millimeter of blood (Healthy adults have approximately 1,000 or more).

  • The HIV + person will also have one of the 26 clinical conditions or opportunistic infections that affect people with advanced HIV infection.

Children with aids

Children with AIDS

  • Children with AIDS get the same symptoms as adults with additional severe forms of bacterial infections like conjunctivitis (pink eye), ear infections and tonsillitis.

What are sexually transmitted diseases stds sexually transmitted infections stis

What are Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)/Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)?

  • STDs/STIs are pathogens transmitted through sexual relationships.

    Such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, herpes,

    warts(human papilloma virus) and hepatitis.

Are west virginia children at risk for hiv aids stds look for yourself

Are West Virginia Children at Risk for HIV/AIDS/STDs?Look for yourself.

Understanding hiv and aids

2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

West Virginia High School

Percentage of students who ever had sexual intercourse





















QN57 - Weighted Data

Understanding hiv and aids


  • A total of 52.5% of West Virginia children in grades 9th-12th have experienced sexual intercourse. The lower grades are increasing in sexual intercourse statistics.

    This puts them at risk for HIV/AIDS/STDs.

Cdc reports on hiv aids


Understanding hiv and aids

1992–2004—United StatesEstimated numbers of AIDS cases in children <13 years of age, by year of diagnosis,

Understanding hiv and aids

2004 United States (CDC)Estimated rates for children <13 years of age living with HIV infection (not AIDS) or with AIDS (per 100,000 population)

Understanding hiv and aids

2004 United States (CDC)Estimated rates for adults and adolescents living with HIV infection (not AIDS) or with AIDS (per 100,000 population),

2005 west virginia youth risk behavior survey yrbs

2005 West VirginiaYouth Risk Behavior Survey(YRBS)

View on line at the following address: http://wvde.state.wv.us/osshp/main/programs.html .

How does west virginia compare to national statistics

How does West Virginia Compare to National Statistics?

West virginia ages 0 19 with hiv aids from june 2006 wvdhhr epi log

West Virginia Ages 0-19with HIV/AIDS from June 2006-WVDHHR Epi-Log


Under 5 y.o.= 13 (1%)

5-12 y.o. = 3 (<1%)

13-19 y.o.= 54 (3%)

Wv statistics on race and gender with hiv aids from june 2006 wvdhhr epi log

WV Statistics on Race and Gender with HIV/AIDS from June 2006-WVDHHR Epi-Log

Race (Total=2152)

Caucasian=1551 (72%)

African American=559 (26%)

Other/Unknown=42 (2%)

Gender (Total=2152)

Male=1525 (73%)

Female=359 (19%)

Risk behaviors for wv population with hiv aids june 2006 wvdhhr epi log

Risk Behaviors for WV population with HIV/AIDS June 2006-WVDHHR Epi-Log

Pediatric (Total =9)

Mother with/at HIV Risk=15 (94%)

Adolescent/Adult (Total=1228)

Men who have sex with Men (MSM)=1080 (51%)

Injection Drug Use (IDU)=358 (17%)

Heterosexual Contact=357 (16%)

Prevention is equivalent to

Prevention is equivalent to:



Goal Setting/Decision Making


Student Advocacy/Self Management


Positive Youth Development


Assets (School and Community)

Note the trends help stop the transmission of hiv aids in our youth and young adults

Note the TRENDS! Help STOP the transmission of HIV/AIDS in our youth and young adults!

Hiv and the law


West virginia law

West Virginia Law

  • West Virginia Code §18-2-9

  • Required Courses of Instruction-requires health education in grades six through twelve to educate on the prevention, transmission and spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome and other sexually transmitted diseases. Allows for parents and guardians to examine the course curriculum requirements and materials. The parent or guardian may exempt the child from participation in such instruction in giving written notice to the school principle.

  • West Virginia §18-5-15d

  • Requires AIDSin-service training programs for all school personnel with encouraged attendance of parents.

West virginia board of education policy

West Virginia Board of EducationPolicy

Policy 2520.5

  • Health Education Content Standards Objectives

    EFFECTIVE July 1, 2007:

    Policy 2422.4 and 2422.45 will be repealed and replaced with

    Policy 2423, Communicable Disease. Communicable Disease in-services will be required every 2 years for all school personnel with emphasis on HIV/AIDS.

Health education content standards of learning policy 2520 5

Health Education Content Standards of LearningPolicy 2520.5

Health education content standards of learning k 12 policy 2520 5

Health Education Content Standards of LearningK-12Policy 2520.5

  • Standard 1: Health Promotion and Disease Prevention (HE.S.1)

    Students will:

    comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention.

  • Standard 2: Health Information and Services (HE.S.2)

    Students will:

    demonstrate the ability to access valid health information and health-promoting products and services.

  • Standard 3: Health Behaviors (HE.S.3)

    Students will:

    demonstrate the ability to practice health-enhancing behaviors and reduce health risks.

Health education content standards of learning

Health Education Content Standards of Learning

  • Standard 4: Culture, Media, and Technology (HE.S.4)

    Students will:

    analyze the influence of culture, media, technology, and other factors on health.

  • Standard 5: Communication (HE.S.5)

    Students will:

    demonstrate the ability to use interpersonal communication skills to enhance health.

  • Standard 6: Goal Setting and Decision Making (HE.S.6)

    Students will:

    demonstrate the ability to use goal-setting and decision-making skills to enhance health.

  • Standard 7: Advocacy (HE.S.7)

    Students will:

    demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family, and community health.

Do what you can do with what you have where you are by theodore roosevelt

“Do what you can do with what you have where you are”.byTheodore Roosevelt

Thank you


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