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2005-06 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). Gender Inequality and Women’s Empowerment. Why Measure Gender Inequality and Women’s Empowerment in NFHS-3?. Important public health consequences for women and children Strategic theme of NPP 2000

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why measure gender inequality and women s empowerment in nfhs 3
Why Measure Gender Inequality and Women’s Empowerment in NFHS-3?
  • Important public health consequences for women and children
  • Strategic theme of NPP 2000

Theme: Empowering women for improved health and nutrition

  • Millennium Development Goals 3 & 4

MDG3: Promote gender equality and empower women

MDG4: Eliminate gender disparity in education

content of presentation
Content of Presentation
  • Selected indicators of gender disparity
  • Access and control over resources
  • Women’s decision making role
  • Freedom of movement
  • Acceptance of gender unequal norms
gender disparity in media exposure
Gender Disparity in Media Exposure

Not only are fewer women than men literate but fewer are also regularly exposed to media

  • Percentage of men and women age 15-19 regularly exposed to print media, TV, radio, or cinema
    • Men 88%
    • Women 71%
    • Gender Disparity 19%
employment another area of gender disparity
Employment: Another Area of Gender Disparity

Percent

Among the population age 15-49

    • Men are 2 times as likely to be employed
    • Men are 2.7 times as likely to be employed for cash
  • Among the employed, 64% of women vs. 91% of men earn cash
  • Female share of population employed for cash in non-agricultural occupations is 22%
does employment empower women financially
Does employment empower women financially?
  • NFHS-3 asked married employed women and men who controlled their own earnings and who controlled the spouse’s earnings (if relevant)
  • 20% of employed married women said they earned at least as much as their husband
  • 24% of men with an employed wife said that their wife earned at least as much as them
control over women s earnings as reported by currently married women and men
Control over Women’s Earnings as Reported by Currently Married Women and Men

Percent

Women’s report about their own earnings

Men’s report about their wife’s earnings

Mainly husband

Husband & wife jointly

Mainly wife

are some women more likely than others to not participate in the use of their earnings
Are some women more likely than others to NOT participate in the use of their earnings?

Percent of currently married women

Age

Residence

Education

Wealth Index

do married women have access to any other financial resources
Do married women have access to any other financial resources?

Percentage of women who:

education employment or wealth do not ensure that women have money that they control
Education, employment, or wealth do not ensure that women have money that they control

Percentage of women age 15-49 who have money which they can decide how to use

slide14

Older women are much more likely than younger women to participate in household decisions

  • Differentials by other characteristics are small
  • However, less than half of even the oldest, urban, more educated, employed or wealthier women participate in all four decisions
what are some of the other hurdles that prevent women from attaining gender equality
What are some of the other hurdles that prevent women from attaining gender equality?
  • Limited freedom of movement
  • Gender norms that promote men’s control over women. NFHS-3 asked women and men questions about norms regarding
    • Wife beating
    • A husband’s right to have sex with his wife irrespective of his wife’s wishes
percentage of women age 15 49 who are allowed to go alone to
Percentage of women age 15-49 who are allowed to go alone to:

The majority of women have little freedom of movement. Only one-third go alone to all three destinations: the market, health facility and outside the village or community.

slide18

Although urban, educated, employed and wealthier persons are less likely to agree with wife beating, these characteristics are not sufficient to supplant beliefs in gender inegalitarian norms

attitude towards refusing sex with husband by situation women and men
Attitude towards refusing sex with husband by Situation, Women and Men

Percentage who agree that a wife is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband when she:

slide20
Percentage of men age 15-49 who consider that, when a woman refuses to have sex with him when he wants, he has the right to:
  • Get angry and reprimand her - 20%
  • Refuse her financial support - 6%
  • Use force to have sex - 6%
  • Have sex with another woman - 4%
key findings
Key Findings
  • Women are disadvantaged absolutely and relative to men in terms of access to education, media exposure, and employment for cash.
  • The majority of married women do not have the final say on the use of their own earnings or all other household decisions asked about.
  • Traditional gender norms, particularly those concerning wife beating, remain strongly entrenched.
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