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ASSESSMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION. NUR240 Lecture 1. LECTURE OBJECTIVES. Review anatomy & physiology of the cardiovascular system. Discuss relevant aspects of the patient history. Describe physical assessment of cardiovascular status.

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Lecture objectives
LECTURE OBJECTIVES

  • Review anatomy & physiology of the cardiovascular system.

  • Discuss relevant aspects of the patient history.

  • Describe physical assessment of cardiovascular status.

  • Review diagnostic procedures, tests and medications relative to the cardiovascular system.


Anatomy physiology
Anatomy & Physiology

(What makes it “tick”!)

Functions of the heart & CV system

  • Pumps blood to tissues to supply O2 & nutrients

  • Remove CO2 & metabolic wastes


Anatomy physiology1
Anatomy & Physiology

CARDIAC CELLS HAVE UNIQUE PROPERTIES

  • AUTOMATICITY CELLS CONTRACT INDEPENDENTLY (THEY INITIATE THEIR OWN IMPULSE)

  • EXCITABILITY ION SHIFT

  • CONDUCTIVITY  TRANSMIT IMPULSE TO ANOTHER CARDIAC CELL

  • CONTRACTTILITY HOW WELL THE CELL CONRACTS


Anatomy physiology2
Anatomy & Physiology

PERICARDIUM / PERICARDIAL SAC

  • Protects heart from trauma

  • Serous fluid lubricates and

    prevents friction

  • Prevents heart from over filling


Coronary arteries
CORONARY ARTERIES

Right & Left arteries encircle the heart and supply blood to the myocardium during ventricular relaxation( diastole)

LEFT MAIN CORONARY ARTERY

L ANTERIOR DESCENDING (LAD)

L CIRCUMFLEX (LCX)

RIGHT CORONARY ARTERY

POSTERIOR

MARGINAL


Coronary arteries1
CORONARY ARTERIES

(L) ARTERY

CIRCUMFLEX

(R) ARTERY

LAD


Contraction of cardiac muscle
CONTRACTION OF CARDIAC MUSCLE

The heart can’t pump unless an electrical stimulus occurs

Action Potential (AP) – electrical change

(depolarization = contraction)

Brought about by release of calcium

(+ charge) into cells- mechanical change

Intrinsic Pacemakers – depolarize and generate the AP


Contraction of cardiac muscle1
CONTRACTION OF CARDIAC MUSCLE

The pacemaker with the fastest rate of depolarization stimulates the AP

  • SA node (60-100 bpm)- Upper R atrium- capable of initiating electrical impulse

  • AV node (40-60 bpm)- Lower R atrium

  • Other pacemakers ( 40 bpm)

    -what can affect SA/AV node function ?


Disruption in serum electrolyes can result in alteration in cardiac cycle
DISRUPTION IN SERUM ELECTROLYES CAN RESULT IN ALTERATION IN CARDIAC CYCLE

  • Potassium

  • Calcium

  • Sodium

  • Magnesium


Monitoring movement of the crdiac action potential ap
MONITORING MOVEMENT OF THE CRDIAC ACTION POTENTIAL (AP) CARDIAC CYCLE

  • EKG – monitors the movement of the AP, in other words, the electrical changes.

  • How are the mechanical changes ( cardiac output ) monitored ?


Cardiac cycle
CARDIAC CYCLE CARDIAC CYCLE

CARDIAC CYCLE – all the activities occurring in the heart during one contraction, and subsequent period of relaxation. Graphically represented on an EKG (ECG)


Cardiac cycle1
CARDIAC CYCLE CARDIAC CYCLE

EKG – A 12 lead EKG is a graphic record of the electrical forces produced by the heart


Cardiac cycle2
CARDIAC CYCLE CARDIAC CYCLE


Cardiac cycle3
CARDIAC CYCLE CARDIAC CYCLE

Polarized (resting) cell – represented on EKG as baseline or isoelectric line

Depolarization – impulse over specialized cardiac cells (not neuromuscular impulse)

Repolarized cell – returns to normal. Na moves out of cell, K moves in – requires ATP

How will ischemic tissue change the cardiac cycle ?


Electrode positions
ELECTRODE POSITIONS CARDIAC CYCLE

“LEADS”

  • Leads measure electrical activity between 2 points

  • Movement toward  electrode causes positive deflection

  • Movement away from  electrode causes negative deflection


Electrode positions1
ELECTRODE POSITIONS CARDIAC CYCLE

A 12 Lead EKG shows electrical activity from 12 different positions in the heart, concentrating on (L) ventricle

A 14 Lead EKG includes (R) ventricle activity


Cardiac output
Cardiac output CARDIAC CYCLE

  • SV-

  • CO-

  • Preload-

  • Afterload-

  • Ejection fraction

  • GOAL is to maintain adequate MAP so perfusion of oxygenated blood to vital organs occurs


Regulation of cardiac function bp
Regulation of cardiac function & BP CARDIAC CYCLE

  • Autonomic nervous system

  • Sympathetic norepinephrine

  • Parasympathetic – acetylcholine

  • Stimulation of adrenals by SNS – norepinephrine

  • Peripheral baro receptors

  • Stretch receptors

  • chemorecptors

  • hormones


Stroke volume sv cardiac output co
STROKE VOLUME (SV) & CARDIAC OUTPUT (CO) CARDIAC CYCLE

  • SV – amount of blood ejected by 1 ventricle in 1 beat

  • CO – volume ejected in 1 min

    Control of SV and HR = SV&HR are continually adjusted by the body, and are affected by the return of blood from the tissues (think of exercise)

    CO = SVxHR


Stroke volume sv cardiac output co1
STROKE VOLUME (SV) & CARDIAC OUTPUT (CO) CARDIAC CYCLE

Extrinsic control of HR is a more powerful way of controlling CO than changing SV

  •  CVP causes stretching of (R) atrial muscle which stimulates SNS &  HR (to help pump all the blood returned to it)

  • Remember “Starling’s Law”


Stroke volume sv cardiac output co2
STROKE VOLUME (SV) & CARDIAC OUTPUT (CO) CARDIAC CYCLE

  • Stretch baroreceptors (aorta & carotid) detect in pressure which stimulates SNS & HR  (to ensure adequate blood supply to heart/ brain)

  • If  pressure detected, then PSNS is stimulated & HR is slowed (vagus nerve) (prevents excess arterial pressure which can damage organs)


Cardiac load
CARDIAC LOAD CARDIAC CYCLE

Preload = degree of myocardial fiber stretch at the end of diastole and just before contraction

Afterload = pressure against which ventricles must eject blood. This pressure is affected by systemic vascular resistance (SVR)


Age related changes
Age related changes CARDIAC CYCLE

  • Decreased myocardial contractility

  • Thickening of endocardium & valves

  • Coronary arteries rigid & thickened

  • Decreased elasticity of vessel walls

  • Decreased internal diameter of vessels


Cardiac assessment
CARDIAC ASSESSMENT CARDIAC CYCLE

Cardiac status of all patients should be routinely assessed. Everyone has a

  • Objective

  • Subjective

    CP

    Dyspnea

    Fatigue

    What else ?


Immediate nursing interventions for acute cardiac event movie acronym
IMMEDIATE NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR ACUTE CARDIAC EVENT CARDIAC CYCLEMOVIE Acronym

M- Monitor for pain

O- O2 and pulse ox

V- Vital signs

I- Intravenous fluids

E- EKG monitoring

Anything else??


Pain assessment
Pain Assessment CARDIAC CYCLE

SLIDA or

Precipitating/alleviating factors

Quality

Radiation

Severity

Timing


Other elements of cardiac assessment
OTHER ELEMENTS OF CARDIAC ASSESSMENT CARDIAC CYCLE

  • Previous cardiac hx

  • Other medical conditions that may affect heart function

  • Chest injury

  • Previous heart surgery

  • Past medical hx

  • Medications: prescribed, OTC, herbals

  • Activity tolerance

  • Health habits

  • Family hx


Examination
EXAMINATION CARDIAC CYCLE

  • Inspection

  • Palpation

  • Percussion-?

  • Auscultation = S1, S2 at PMI

    Aortic

    Pulmonic

    Tricuspid

    Mitral


Heart rhythm regular irregular regular irregular
Heart Rhythm CARDIAC CYCLERegular, Irregular, Regular Irregular

Abnormal Sounds: Gallops

Murmurs

Bruits

S3 ventricular gallop – heard in early diastole

S4 atrial gallop – generally abnormal


Assessment of murmurs
Assessment of Murmurs CARDIAC CYCLE

Turbulent blood flow in valvular disorders and septal defects

Timing of murmurs is a must!

Systolic murmurs occur between S1 & S2

Diastolic murmurs occur between

S2 & S1

Grade 1 – 6 identifies intensity of murmur


Other assessments
Other assessments CARDIAC CYCLE

  • Jugular vein pressure – assess JVD which reflects increased filling volume and pressure on (R) side of heart

     JVD associated with (R) HF, SVC obstruction (Normal is 3-10cm H20)

  • Pulse deficit – the difference between apical HR and peripheral pulse-associated with Afib, and heart blocks

  • Pulse pressure – the difference between systolic & diastolic pressure


Other assessments1
Other assessments CARDIAC CYCLE

  • Respiratory: Lung sounds = rate, rhythm, quality, sputum

  • GI-Abdomen

  • Peripheral Vascular:Lower extremities


Diagnostic procedures
Diagnostic Procedures CARDIAC CYCLE

  • EKG 12 Lead

    continuous cardiac monitoring

    holter monitor

  • Chest x-ray – detects enlargement of heart & pulmonary congestion


Diagnostic procedures1
Diagnostic procedures CARDIAC CYCLE

  • Echocardiography – ultrasound that reveals size, shape and motion of cardiac structures

    Evaluates heart wall thickness, valve structure, differentiates murmurs

  • TEE – transesophageal echocardiography provides a clearer image because less tissue for sound waves to pass through


Diagnostic procedures2
Diagnostic procedures CARDIAC CYCLE

  • Angiography / cardiac catherization

    determines coronary lesion size, location, evaluate (L) ventricular function, measures heart pressures

  • Exercise tolerance test

  • Radionuclide Imaging


Lab studies
Lab Studies CARDIAC CYCLE

Cardiac enzymes = enzymes are released when cells are damaged (MI). Enzymes are found in many tissues/muscles, and some are specific to cardiac tissue.

Serial measurement can aid in dx, and monitor course of MI

Cardiac enzymes =

CPK – MB (CK-MB),myoglobin, Troponin

In general, the greater the rise in the serum level of an enzyme, the greater the degree or extent of damage to the muscle.

LDH


Lab studies1
LAB studies CARDIAC CYCLE

  • Electrolytes

  • Lipid panel

  • CBC

  • C – Reactive Protein

  • BNP- Human B-Natriuretic Peptide

  • Blood coags-PT/PTT/INR


Nclex time
NCLEX TIME CARDIAC CYCLE

Mary is attending a sophomore level nursing class on anatomy and physiology. Which statement, if made by Mary, demonstrates a good understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the heart?

A."The heart is encapsulated by a protective coating called the endocardium.“

B."The SA node is considered the main regulator of heart rate.“

C."The left atrium receives deoxygenated venous blood from all peripheral tissues.“

D."Stroke volume is the amount of blood ejected by the right ventricle during each diastole


Nclex time1
NCLEX TIME CARDIAC CYCLE

Kirsten is completing her graduate clinical rotation in a large urban teaching hospital in a medical coronary care unit (CCU). Which observation demonstrates a good understanding of completing a thorough cardiac examination?

  • A. In an obese client, an adult cuff size of 12 to 14 cm is preferable.

  • B.The carotid artery on the neck is auscultated to assess for the presence of a bruit.

  • C.The apical impulse is auscultated over the fifth intercostal space in the midclavicular line.

  • D.Palpation is used to determine cardiac size.


Nclex time2
NCLEX TIME CARDIAC CYCLE

Edward is a 40-year-old white male. He is an accountant who works on average 11 hours per day. He reports feeling stressed each day, even with mundane things such as a traffic jam. His father had a massive myocardial infarction at the age of 48. His mother has a history of congestive heart failure. He seldom has time to exercise, but does eat balanced meals when possible, although he does not get to eat three meals a day. Select all factors that place Edward at risk for heart disease.

  • A.Family history

  • B.Age

  • C.Coping-stress tolerance

  • D.Race

  • E.Occupation


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