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Organic Compounds. Made of carbon and hydrogen. Carbon easily shares 4 electrons. Easily forms chains or rings. Glucose. The most important elements in living things: C H N O P S Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorous, Sulfur.

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Organic compounds

Organic Compounds

Made of carbon and hydrogen


Carbon easily shares 4 electrons
Carbon easily shares 4 electrons

  • Easily forms chains or rings

Glucose




4 types of organic compounds
4 Types of Organic Compounds

  • Carbohydrate

    Carbon and Water

    Elements- C, H, O always in a

    1:2:1 ratio

    Monomer- Monosaccharide

    (one sugar)

    glucose


Glucose, fructose,

and galactose are

monosaccharides

fructose

glucose

Glucose and fructose bonded together forms a disaccharide, sucrose.


Dehydration synthesis also called a condensation reaction
Dehydration Synthesis also called a Condensation Reaction

  • Joins monomers together by removing a molecule of water

  • AH+BOH AB+H2O

+


Hydrolysis reaction
Hydrolysis Reaction

  • Water Splitting

  • Breaks polymers down into monomers by adding water

  • Digestion is hydrolysis. Monomers can then be absorbed by the body

  • AB+H2O AH+BOH


http://www.tvdsb.on.ca/westmin/science/sbioac/biochem/condense.htmhttp://www.tvdsb.on.ca/westmin/science/sbioac/biochem/condense.htm


Polysaccharides
Polysaccharideshttp://www.tvdsb.on.ca/westmin/science/sbioac/biochem/condense.htm

Cellulose in plant cell wall-fiber in your diet

Starch is how plants

store glucose

Glycogen is how

animals store glucose


  • Uses or functions of carbs-http://www.tvdsb.on.ca/westmin/science/sbioac/biochem/condense.htm

    Quick Energy, Cell Walls

  • Examples-bread, pasta, rice, potatoes, sugar

  • Atheletes are fed carbohydrates before the big game because as the bonds in the food are broken down, energy is released

  • Sugar suffix = -ose (glucose, sucrose, maltose)


2 lipids

Carboxyl group makeshttp://www.tvdsb.on.ca/westmin/science/sbioac/biochem/condense.htm

fatty acid

2. Lipids

  • Elements-C, H, O containing way more carbon and hydrogen than oxygen

  • Monomers-Glycerol and 3 Fatty Acids

G

L

Y

C

E

R

O

L

Fatty Acid

Fatty Acid

Fatty Acid

Insoluble in water



Unsaturated Fats –Double bonds do not

stack well forming liquids


Saturated fats are bad for you because they solidify in the body forming plaque that

Clogs arteries=arteriosclerosis



3 proteins
3. Proteins attacks (blockage to heart) and strokes (blockage to brain)

  • Elements-C, H, O, N, and sometimes S

  • Monomers-Amino Acids

  • Shapes= Amino Acids

  • Line= Peptide Bonds

  • Proteins are also called polypeptides



4 nucleic acids
4. Nucleic Acids Membrane, ENZYMES, Body’s Last Energy Source

  • Elements-C, H, O, N, P

  • Monomers- Nucleotides

  • Nucleotide has three parts:

  • A Pentose (5 carbon sugar

  • A Phosphate Group

  • A Nitrogen Base


DNA


Enzymes are proteins
Enzymes are Proteins proteins

  • Organic catalysts-speed up chemical reaction without being changed in the process

  • Enzymes lower the energy of activation or the amount of energy it takes to get a reaction started

  • Enzymes are very specific. They only fit one substrate




Enzymes animation how enzymes work
Enzymes proteinsAnimation: How Enzymes Work




2 temperature
2. Temperature bind with the substrate.

  • Molecules move faster when they are warm, slower when they are cool

  • Warm temperatures increase enzyme activity because they bump into the substrate more frequently

  • To high a temperature will cause the enzyme to denature (change shape) and the substrate can not bind with the

    active site


3 concentration of enzyme or substrate
3. Concentration of Enzyme or Substrate bind with the substrate.

  • The more enzyme the greater the chance of the substrate bumping into it increasing the rate of the reaction until all of the substrate has been used.

  • The more substrate the greater the chance of the enzyme bumping into it increasing the rate of the reaction until all the enzymes have substrate in them and the reaction will level off


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