Multilingual domain names
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 23

MULTILINGUAL DOMAIN NAMES PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 63 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

APAN2002 Conference in Phuket. MULTILINGUAL DOMAIN NAMES. ( INTERNATIONALIZED ). Hirofumi Hotta ( JPRS & JPNIC ) [email protected] January 24, 2002. http:// 日本レジストリサービス .jp. non-English characters in e-mail. Step1 Phonetic mapping in e-mail texts Step2

Download Presentation

MULTILINGUAL DOMAIN NAMES

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Multilingual domain names

APAN2002 Conference in Phuket

MULTILINGUAL DOMAIN NAMES

(INTERNATIONALIZED)

Hirofumi Hotta (JPRS & JPNIC)

[email protected]

January 24, 2002

http://日本レジストリサービス.jp


Non english characters in e mail

non-English characters in e-mail

  • Step1

    • Phonetic mapping in e-mail texts

  • Step2

    • Native language characters in e-mail texts

  • Step3

    • Native language characters in “Subject” fields

  • Step4 ?

    • Native language characters in “To” and “From” field

      • Names such as company names and personal names in the social relevant context should be presented in their native language


Demands on multilingual domain names

Demands on multilingual domain names

  • Rapid growth of the Internet

    • More non-English speakers are becoming Internet users

  • People using non-ASCII characters

  • Undesirable unification in LDH world

    • 博文, 博史, 宏史, …..are all “hirofumi”s in ASCII space

    • Apostrophe, accents, umlauts, ….. cannot be used in ASCII space

Demand on multilingual domain names


History technology

History (technology)

  • Late 1990s

    • Developed at the National University of Singapore

  • July 1998

    • Asia Pacific Networking Group

      • iDNS Working group : development of the experimental implementation of an Internationalized multilingual multiscript Domain Names Service

      • iDomain Working Group : creation of an iDNS testbed in Asia Pacific countries

  • 1998-1999

    • Prototypes demonstrated in international conferences

    • BoFs held in international conferences

      • APRICOT

      • INET

  • Nov. 1999 -

    • BoF in IETF

    • IDN (Internationalized Domain Name) Working Group in IETF


History deployment

History (deployment)

  • End of 1999

    • Several companies began commercialization of the multilingual domain name technology

    • Several testbeds emerged

  • July 2000 -

    • MINC (Multilingual Domain Names Consortium)

      • promotion of the multilingualization of Internet names, including Internet domain names and keywords, the internationalization of Internet names standards and protocols, technical coordination, and liaison with other international bodies

    • Country/regional organizations

      • AINC (Arabic Internet Names Consortium)

      • CDNC (Chinese Domain Name Consortium )

      • INFITT (International Forum for IT in Tamil )

      • JDNA (Japanese Domain Names Association )


History policy

History (policy)

  • March 2001

    • Internationalized Domain Name (IDN) Working Group in ICANN Board

      • Fact finding survey concerning technical, policy, and service aspects

      • Survey report published in Sept. 2001

        • Market demand shown

        • List of issues elaborated

    • GAC (Governmental Advisory Committee) of ICANN

      • communiqué expressing GAC’s support for multilingual domain names

  • Sept. 2001

    • IDN Committee

      • Will recommend solutions of non-technical issues


Basic technical requirements

Basic technical requirements

  • Preservation of compatibility with current domain names

  • Preservation of uniqueness of domain name space

  • The Internet must not be divided into islands

Required by IAB (Internet Architecture Board)


Character codes of multilingual domain names

Character codes of multilingual domain names

  • Current : proprietary (local) standard

    • in PCs

    • in PDAs

    • in Internet-enabled phones

  • Best current solution may be

    • UNICODE

    • Specification of code sets of many languages

  • Additional issues

    • traditional Chinese characters / simplified Chinese characters

      • Are they same characters in domain names ?

      • Is this a local code issue or universal protocol issue ?


Client side vs server side solutions

Client-side vs. Server-side solutions

(chosen by IETF)

  • Client-side solution

    • Translation between multilingual script and ASCII-compatible representation is performed in the user application

    • Domain names are processed as ASCII domain names all over the Internet

  • Server-side solution

    • Domain names are sent over the Internet in local encoding

    • Applications and services communicate with each other using non-ASCII domain names all the way

user

application

DNS

multilingual domain names

ASCII domain names

client-side

solution

multilingual domain names

server-side

solution


How multilingual string is converted to ascii

How multilingual string is converted to ASCII

ex)

ABCカンパニー.JP

ABCカンパニー.JP

ABCカンハ゜ニー.JP

original

string

NAMEPREP

unification of the strings considered to be the same

ex)

normalized

string

ABCカンパニー.JP

ACE

conversion to an ASCII string

ex)

ASCII

string

Internet

(based on ASCII)

ZQ--GD7UD72C75B2X46RZP6A.JP


Issues in using ace

Issues in using ACE

  • Subspace is used by multilingual domain names

  • Issues

    • Reservation of the subspace

    • Length limitation is severer

      • Domain label

      • Domain name

ACE

ACE-ed Multilingual Domain Names

Multilingual

Domain Names

decode

ASCII Domain Names


Intellectual property rights

Intellectual Property Rights

  • More problems will arise with multilingual domain names

    • Names in its local language characters means more than those in ASCII characters

  • IPR protection – before registration

    • Reserved domain names

    • Sunrise period

  • IPR protection – after registration

    • DRP (Dispute Resolution Polcy)


Defining a multilingual top level domain

Defining a multilingual top level domain

  • Current implementation of multilingual domain names

    • Second level domain or under

      • Allowed by current DNS architecture and technology

    • Top level domain

      • Alternate root

      • Inclusive root

      • Pseudo-root

  • Above are only to satisfy commercial drive or users’ demands on early deployment of multilingual domain names

  • It is important for ICANN to define a multilingual top level domain creation policy


Issues in various tlds

Issues in various TLDs

  • {non-ASCII-string}.{ASCII-ccTLD}

  • {non-ASCII-string}.{ASCII-gTLD}

    • Organizations already being authorized are responsible for the domain name space

  • {any-string}.{non-ASCII-ccTLD}

    • One organization from the relevant country is named to be responsible for the domain name space

    • If a country has more than 1 official language,

      • What is the language for non-ASCII-ccTLD, or

      • How many non-ASCII-ccTLDs are given to the country

  • {any-string}.{non-ASCII-gTLD}

    • No one can tell whether top level domain “.企業” is Chinese or Japanese

    • Difficulty in choosing a responsible organization

      • who in what country


Other political issues

Other political issues

  • What are the languages that constitute multilingual domain names

    • Some languages have 2 or more kinds of scripts

    • Traditional Chinese/simplified Chinese

  • Who is the language authority for multilingual domain names

    • Should rules be the same even under different TLDs?

      • A single domain name registry should not be the ultimate authority of for the rules

      • Is such rule definition an international issue?

    • Language rules are known to only people using the language

      • To what extent does the solution need international standard or local coordination?

      • Each language stakeholders should coordinate among themselves


Future issues

Future Issues

growth of the number of multilingual

domain names and their users

synergy

deployment of

name servers

with multilingual

domain names

applications

with

multilingual

domain name

facilities

policy and coordination of registration and management rules

technology standardization and development


Introduction of japanese domain names

Introduction of Japanese Domain Names

日本レジストリサービス.JP

  • Registration as second level domains

    • ASCII label

    • Japanese label

  • Japanese domain names, consisting of Chinese and Kana characters as well as ASCII characters, can be registered

    • Up to 15 characters

  • Japanese domain names are registered only as general-use JP domain names.

Second level domain

Top level domain


Categories of reserved japanese domain names

Categories of Reserved Japanese Domain Names

  • Prefectures; large cities designated by ordinance; prefectural capital cities

  • Single characters in Hiragana, Katakana, numbers written in Chinese characters, prolonged sound symbols, and others.

    • あ、イ、五、ー、…

  • Names of primary and secondary educational organizations (primary schools, junior high schools, etc.)

    • Names ending with “小学校 (primary school),” “中学校 (junior high school)” and “高等学校 (high school).”

  • Names of international inter-governmental organizations (such as the United Nations)

  • Names related to administrative, judicial, and legislative agencies

  • Japanese common nouns

    • Ex) service, station, sightseeing, . . . (that may appear in yellow pages)

  • Names required for JPNIC operations

    • ジェイピーニック、ドメイン名、日本語ドメイン名、…


Phased introduction

Phased introduction

  • Priority registration

    • 22/Feb/2001 - 23/Mar/2001

    • Trademarks, registered names, university names, personal names in full

    • In case of competition, registrants were determined by draw

  • Concurrent registration

    • 02/Apr/2001 - 23/Apr/2001

    • All applications which arrived in this period were regarded as arrived at the same time, not in the order received

    • In case of competition, registrants were determined by draw

  • First-come-first-served basis registration

    • 07/May/2001 -


Results of priority registration

Results of Priority Registration

  • Priority Registration Applications

Category

ASCII

Japanese

Total

Trademarks

8,300

11,900

20,100

Registered names

0

12,400

12,400

Personal names

200

600

800

academic

0

400

400

Total number of applications

8,500

25,400

33,800

Number of domain

names registered

6,500

22,600

29,100


Results of concurrent registration

Results of Concurrent Registration

Category

ASCII

Japanese

Total

Number of applications

Multiple applications

32,500

41,700

74,200

Single applications

22,600

23,400

46,000

Total

55,100

65,200

120,300

Number of domain names

Multiple applications

4,600

5,200

9,800

Single applications

22,600

23,400

46,000

Total

27,200

28,600

55,800

# of domain names as of 1/Dec/2001

Traditional283,300 ASCII -

General use122,000 ASCII61,500 Japanese


Technologies in japanese jp domain names

Technologies in Japanese JP domain names

  • NAMEPREP+RACE (AMC-ACE-Z in May)

  • mDNkit (open source)

    • Software library for applications

    • Software tool for nameserver software upgrade

  • Applications

    • DNS Proxy

    • mDN wrapper (which intercepts communications and converts domain names)

    • IE + RealNames

    • Users can develop applications using mDNkit


Japanese domain names association

Japanese Domain Names Association

jdna.jp

日本語ドメイン名協会.jp

  • Activities

    • Information exchange

    • Standardization of usage

    • Development of a tool kit

    • Support for development and testing

  • Members

    • ISPs

    • Application/Hardware vendors

    • Domain name registries/registrars

    • Universities

  • Working Groups

    • Interface specification

    • Web

    • Mail

    • VoIP


  • Login