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Cell Biology. Essential Question. Cell. Name those who added to the cell theory ; what did each contribute?. 10.29.2007. Cell. Cell Theory Robert Hooke (1665) first discovered and named “cells” looked at dead cells of a cork plant. Cell. Cell Theory

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Cell biology

CellBiology


Essential question

Essential Question

Cell

Name those who added to

the cell theory;

what did each contribute?

10.29.2007


Cell biology

Cell

Cell Theory

  • Robert Hooke (1665)

    • first discovered and

      named “cells”

    • looked at dead cells

      of a cork plant


Cell biology

Cell

Cell Theory

  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1674)

    • built microscopes to study

      ‘animalcules’ known today

      as microorganisms

    • first to see living cells


Cell biology

Cell

Cell Theory

  • Matthias Schleiden (1838)

    • stated all plants are made of cells


Cell biology

Cell

Cell Theory

  • Theodore Schwann (1839)

    • studied human notochord

    • concluded all animals are made of cells


Cell biology

Cell

Cell Theory

  • Rudolph Virchow (1858)

    • every cell comes from another cell like it.


Cell biology

Cell

Cell Theory

  • modern Cell Theory

    • All living things are composed of cells.

    • Cells are the units of structure and function in living things.

    • New cells are produced from

      pre-existing cells.


Cell biology

Cell

Cell Structure

  • Cells can come in 3 shapes

    1. Sphere

    2. Brick

    3. Cube


Cell biology

Cell

Cell Structure

The smallest are bacteria cells

The largest is the human egg


Cell biology

Cell

Cell Structure

  • Two types of organisms

  • Unicellular- ex. Bacteria, yeasts, Amoeba

  • Multicellular- some cells are specialized; evolved from unicellular cells


Cell biology

Cell

Cell Structure

  • Levels of organization

    cell

    tissue

    organ

    organ system

    organism


Cell biology

Cell

Organelles

cell membrane


Cell biology

Cell

Organelles

(transparent layer between cells)

cell wall


Cell biology

Cell

Organelles

nucleus


Cell biology

Organelles

(stained green)

microtubules

Cell


Cell biology

Organelles

microfilaments

Cell


Cell biology

Organelles

(red)

ribosome

Cell


Cell biology

Organelles

(yellow)

endoplasmic reticulum

Cell


Cell biology

Organelles

(purple)

golgi apparatus

Cell


Cell biology

Organelles

lysosome

Cell


Cell biology

Organelles

vacuole

Cell


Cell biology

Organelles

mitochondria

Cell


Cell biology

Organelles

flagella

Cell


Cell biology

Organelles

cilia

Cell


Cell biology

Organelles

(green)

chloroplast

Cell


Cell biology

Organelles

(green)

cell wall

Cell


Cell biology

Organelles

centriole

Cell


Cell biology

Organelles

(white)

cytoplasm

Cell


Cell biology

Organelles

What is a plastid?

A storage cell

Which 3 organelles are plastids?

Cell


Essential question1

Essential Question

Cell

What are the different states

of concentration across a membrane?

11.5.2007


Cell biology

Types of cells

cells classifications

prokaryote

no membrane bound organelles (no nucleus)

ex: bacteria

eukaryote

cells with membrane bound organelles

ex: plants, fungi, animals, protists

Cell


Cell biology

Transport

cell membrane

fluid mosaic model

membrane constantly moving

3 main molecules

proteins

carbohydrates

lipids

hydrophilic (water loving) heads

hydrophobic (water fearing) tails

Cell


Cell biology

Transport

Cell


Cell biology

Transport

cell membrane

allows for transport of materials into and out of cell

Cell


Cell biology

Transport

diffusion

movement of molecules from higher to lower concentration

Cell


Cell biology

Transport

equilibrium

state in which concentration is equal in all areas

Cell


Cell biology

Transport

osmosis

movement of water from higher to lower concentration.

Cell


Cell biology

Transport

osmosis

hypertonic

concentration of solute is greater outside cell

hypotonic

concentration of solute is less outside cell

isotonic

concentration of solute is equal on both sides of membrane

Cell


Cell biology

Transport

osmosis

Cell


Cell biology

Transport

osmosis

Cell


Cell biology

Transport

osmosis

Which is isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic?

Isotonic hypertonic hypotonic

Cell


Cell biology

Cell

Transport

  • osmosis


Cell biology

Cell

Transport

  • osmosis


Cell biology

Cell

Transport

  • osmosis


Cell biology

Cell

Transport

  • osmosis


Essential question2

Essential Question

Cell

Be able to differentiate

between the types

of cell transport.

11.7.2007


Cell biology

Transport

facilitated diffusion

molecules move across membrane with help of transport proteins

Cell


Cell biology

Transport

active transport

uses energy to transport molecules against concentration gradient

Cell


Cell biology

Transport

active transport

uses energy to transport molecules against concentration gradient

Cell


Cell biology

Transport

endocytosis

engulfing solid particles using the cell membrane

Cell


Cell biology

Transport

endocytosis

engulfing solid particles using the cell membrane

1. phagocytosis

endocytosis of solid material

2. Pinocytosis

Endocytosis of liquid material

Cell


Cell biology

Transport

exocytosis

cell secretes large particles via membrane bound sacs

Cell


Cell biology

Transport

Tugor: the pressure within cells derived from osmotic pressure differences between the inside and outside of the cell causing rigidity.

Cell


Cell biology

Evolution of eukaryotic cells

Prokaryotes were the 1st to evolve, then eukaryotes

Why??

Cell


Cell biology

Evolution of eukaryotic cells

Symbiotic Theory: prokaryotes were once engulfed by other cells, giving rise to eukaryotes.

1. Ex. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts have their own DNA and RNA

Cell


Cell biology

Evolution of eukaryotic cells

mitochondria are the result of endocytosis of aerobic bacteria

chloroplasts are the result of endocytosis of photosynthetic bacteria

Cell


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