TIER 4 Literary Elements. 2. I. Genre. a type of literature such as the novel, a short story, or poetry . TIER 4 Literary Elements. 3. II. FICTION. a writing that has events, characters, and a setting imaginatively created. Its purpose is to entertain and often illustrate some truth about life.. TIER 4 Literary Elements.
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1. Short Story Elements
2. TIER 4 Literary Elements 2 I. Genre a type of literature such as the novel, a short story, or poetry
3. TIER 4 Literary Elements 3 II. FICTION a writing that has events, characters, and a setting imaginatively created. Its purpose is to entertain and often illustrate some truth about life.
4. TIER 4 Literary Elements 4 Four Types of Fiction Writing Short Story
5. TIER 4 Literary Elements 5 III. Short Story a brief work of fiction designed to produce a single effect (ex: humor, horror, sympathy, etc).
It is shorter than a novel but must have a beginning, middle, and an end.
Also known as a narrative.
6. TIER 4 Literary Elements 6 Elements of a Short Story: Plot
7. TIER 4 Literary Elements 7 1. PLOT the chronological arrangement of the events in a story; what happens first, second, or third according to time.
Elements of Plot:
Pattern of events (chronological order)
Conflict (Internal or External)
8. TIER 4 Literary Elements 8 Elements of Plot Structure Exposition: introduction; meet the characters and setting
Rising Action: conflict develops
Climax: point of greatest interest; solution to the problem determines how the story ends
Falling Action: events resulting from the climax
Denouement / Resolution: the final outcome
9. TIER 4 Literary Elements 9 Plot Diagram
10. TIER 4 Literary Elements 10 Foreshadowing The use of clues by the author to prepare readers for events that will happen later in a story.
Often used during the RISING ACTION.
11. TIER 4 Literary Elements 11 Flashback A literary device in which an earlier episode, conversation, or event is inserted into the chronological sequence of a narrative.
Often presented as a memory of a character, a flashback may be sparked by one or more cues, such as a sound or smell associated with a prior experience.
12. TIER 4 Literary Elements 12 CONFLICT The struggle between opposing forces.
Man versus man
Man versus nature
Man versus society
Man versus himself
13. TIER 4 Literary Elements 13 2. SETTING The setting is the time and location in which the action occurs. A story can be set in the past, present, or future. Even if the author does not specify the time in a story, you may draw conclusions from things that are mentioned.
The time and location in a story affect the atmosphere. The atmosphere is the general feeling that is created as you read the story.
Details of setting are rarely given fully and directly in a single opening paragraph but may appear throughout the story.
14. TIER 4 Literary Elements 14 3. THEME Theme is the central message of a story, poem, novel, or play that readers can apply to life.
Some works have a stated theme, which is expressed directly.
More commonly, works have an implied theme, which is revealed gradually. To discover an implied theme, the reader might have to look at the experiences of the main character and the lessons he or she learns.
15. TIER 4 Literary Elements 15 4. CHARACTER Character: a person or animal in a play or story
Protagonist: the main character; the “good” guy
Antagonist: the character or force that opposes the main character; the “bad” guy
16. TIER 4 Literary Elements 16 Characterization
the author’s method of acquainting the reader with his/her characters
17. TIER 4 Literary Elements 17 Methods of Characterization Direct Characterization
Make a direct statement about the character
Indirect Characterization – learn about the character through:
the character’s own words or thoughts
the character’s actions
the character’s appearance
what the other characters say to or about them
18. TIER 4 Literary Elements 18 Four Character Types Round character – shows varied and sometimes contradictory traits
Flat character – reveals only one personality trait. A stereotype is a flat character of a familiar and often repeated type.
19. TIER 4 Literary Elements 19 Dynamic Character – develops and changes in the course of the literary work. This change may result from a conflict or from a newfound understanding of him- or herself or others.
Static character – remains the same from beginning to end.
20. TIER 4 Literary Elements 20 IV. Literary Elements A. SYMBOLS
Any object, person, place, or experience that means more than what it is.
Symbolism is the use of images to represent internal realities.
21. TIER 4 Literary Elements 21 B. MOOD The general atmosphere or feeling in a work of literature.
Mood is created largely through description and setting.
EXAMPLE: Graphic details of disease and death establish a mood of horror in the beginning of Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Masque of Red Death”
22. TIER 4 Literary Elements 22 C. TONE A reflection of a writer’s or speaker’s attitude toward a subject of a poem, story, or other literary work.
Tone may be communicated through words and details that express particular emotions.
For example: word choice or phrasing may seem to convey respect, anger, or sarcasm.
23. TIER 4 Literary Elements 23 D. Point of View The vantage point from which the narrator tells the story.
Types of POV:
First Person – the narrator is usually a character in the story. This narrator tells the story by using the pronouns I or we.
24. TIER 4 Literary Elements 24 Limited Third Person – the narrator is outside the story and reveals the thoughts of only one character, but refers to that character as ‘he’ or ‘she.’
Third Person Omniscient – the narrator is outside the story and seems to know what every character is thinking and feeling.
25. TIER 4 Literary Elements 25 E. Understatement Language that makes something seem less than it really is. Understatement may be used to insert humor or to focus the reader’s attention on something the author wants to emphasize.
26. TIER 4 Literary Elements 26 F. Irony The contrast, or difference, between appearance and reality, or what is said and what is meant.
27. TIER 4 Literary Elements 27 Three Types of Irony Situational Irony – the actual outcome of a situation is the opposite of someone’s expectations.
Verbal Irony – a person says one thing and means another.
Dramatic Irony – the audience knows important information that the characters in a literary work do not know.