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Assignment:. On the paper/card, please write at the top whether you are a middle school or a high school teacher. Next, briefly write a question, issue, problem that you have in terms of teaching ELA this year. It can be about the Common Core, ideas for teaching a novel, etc.

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  • On the paper/card, please write at the top whether you are a middle school or a high school teacher.

  • Next, briefly write a question, issue, problem that you have in terms of teaching ELA this year. It can be about the Common Core, ideas for teaching a novel, etc.

  • Be ready to turn this in a moment of two!

Emerson (ELA) Grades 6-12 Lead Teachers

November 7, 2012

Barbara Barthel, Consultant

Stark County Educational Service Center


  • State, Parcc, and other updates

  • Book Talk

  • Next Steps Work

NOVEMBER 19, 2012

  • Vendor Showcase of Intervention Materials for Reading K-12

  • R.G. Drage Career and Technical Center

  • Open to Teachers from 3:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m.

  • Drop in and see!

Book Talk

Teaching Basic and Advanced Vocabulary: A Framework for Direct Instruction

  • Robert Marzano

  • ASCD, 2010

Need for Instruction in Basic Vocabulary

  • Link between vocabulary knowledge and academic achievement!

Beck, McKeown, Kuno 2002

  • Vocabulary terms are categorized into three tiers.

    • Tier 1: terms that are the most frequent in the English language; terms that are the most basic in the English language; terms that “rarely require instructional attention to their meaning in school.”

  • Who NEEDS instruction in basic terms?

    • Students of Poverty

    • ELL English Language Learners

Tier 2: Advanced Terms

  • Requires instructional attention to their meanings

  • Appear infrequently enough that they will probably not be learned in context

  • Recommended by Beck as the focus of instruction

Tier 3: Academic Words

  • Specific to the subject matter

  • General history has the most terms (1,311)

  • Greatest number of academic terms is in Grade levels 3-5

  • Least in Grades K-2

Where to Begin?

  • Pre-assess to determine level to begin

Marzano’s Six-Step Process for Teaching Vocabulary

  • The teacher provides a description, explanation, or example of the new term.

  • Students restate the explanation of the new term in their own words.

  • Students create a nonlinguistic representation of the term.

  • Students periodically engage in activities that help them add to their knowledge of the vocabulary term.

  • Periodically, students are asked to discuss terms with one another.

  • Periodically, students are involved in games that allow them to play with the terms.

Introductory Phase: First Three Steps

  • Purpose: to help students attach meaning to new terms they are learning

  • Involves associating past experiences with a new term

Comparison Phase

  • Focus is on helping students develop distinctions between the meaning of the new word and other words they might know or are learning.

  • Semantic clusters come in to play.

  • Purpose: make distinctions regarding what the terms mean and do not mean

Review and Refinement Phase

  • Task is to expand students’ understanding of the term by making multiple and varied linkages.

  • Students can add some advanced terms to their knowledge base.

  • Goal: to expand the number and diversity of linkages between the target term and other terms that are closely related or tangentially related

Phases of Teaching a New Term

Strategies for the Introductory Phase

  • Step One: Provide descriptions, examples, anecdotes, and illustrations

  • Step Two: Having students develop their own descriptions, examples, and illustrations

Sample for Nouns

61% of the basic terms are nouns,

  • Teacher provides a brief description that focuses on some of the characteristics of the term.

  • Teacher elicits input about the term from the students.

  • The teacher asks follow-up questions to the get more info from the students.

  • The teacher tells a brief anecdote and uses the term in a sentence or two.

  • The teacher provides a picture that involves the new terms.

Sample for Verbs

About 22% of the basic terms are verbs.

  • The teacher describes important characteristics of the verb.

  • The teacher may have to use the verb in a form that is more familiar to students.

  • The teacher would provide a brief story about a time that describes the term.

  • The teacher uses the word in a sentence that illustrates some of the characteristics.

  • The teacher provides a relevant picture.


About 11% of basic terms are adjectives.

  • The teacher provides information about the term.

  • The teacher gives examples of the adjective.

  • The teacher asks the students for examples.

  • The teacher provides a sentence with an example and the word.

  • The teacher tells a story.

  • The teacher provides a picture.


  • The same or similar process is done with other parts of speech:

    • About 3% of the basic terms are adverbs.

    • About half of 1% are conjunctions.

    • About 2% are prepositions.

    • Less than 1% are interjections.

    • About 2% are pronouns.

Student Examples, etc.

  • Students find, draw, etc., pictures for the words.

  • Students use words to explain, describe, etc.

Strategies for the Comparison Phase

  • Put the term in groups of related terms.

  • Vocabulary notebook entry:

    • Term: with student definition

    • Related term: with the differences

    • Picture

  • Sentence stems:

    • ____ and ____ are alike because ______.

    • ____ and ____ are different because ______.

Venn Diagram


Double Bubble

You did something nice for somoone

Other people like it



Someone did some-thing nice for you

The Comparison Matrix

Classifying Activities

  • Students organize terms into like categories. Teacher gives terms for two or more related clusters.

Metaphors and Analogies

Strategies for Review and Refinement Phase

  • Give-One, Get-One Activities

    • Done in pairs

    • Use vocabulary notebooks

    • Examine the partner’s notebook looking for information on a specific term

    • Discuss and add

Use of Roots and Affixes


Talk a Mile a Minute

What Is the Question?

Classroom Feud

Which Word Doesn’t Fit?

The Role of Vocabulary Notebooks

Organize According to Clusters

Remainder of Book

  • Test Words

  • Cluster Groups

  • Etc.

Next Steps

  • Login