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Varroa Mite Sampling and IPM. Keith Tignor VDACS Richmond, VA [email protected] Integrated Pest Management. Economic Injury Level. Economic Threshold. No Economic Loss. Identify Problem. Evaluate Results. Understand Pest/Host Interactions. Monitor Pest Levels.

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Varroa mite sampling and ipm

Varroa Mite Sampling and IPM

Keith Tignor

VDACS

Richmond, VA

[email protected]


Integrated pest management
Integrated Pest Management

Economic Injury Level

Economic Threshold

No Economic Loss


Integrated pest management1

Identify Problem

Evaluate Results

Understand Pest/Host Interactions

Monitor Pest Levels

Select and Apply Controls

Determine Threshold Levels

Assess Options

Integrated Pest Management

Research

Treatment


Integrated pest management2

Toxicity

Intervention

Prevention

Integrated Pest Management

Chemical

Biological

Genetic

Mechanical

Cultural


Integrated pest management3

Lessens the potential for pesticide resistance

Reduces chemical costs

Limits human exposure to pesticides

Lowers the environmental impact of pest management.

Integrated Pest Management





Life cycle of the varroa mite1
Life Cycle of the Varroa Mite

  • Tied to the Brood

  • Females diploid

  • Males haploid

  • 1st egg male

  • Male development: 5.5 to 6.2 days

  • Female development: 6.5 to 6.9 days

  • 5 – 6 eggs deposited

  • Mating in cell

  • Reproductive rate of 1.3 to 2.6 females per cycle


Life cycle of the varroa mite2
Life Cycle of the Varroa Mite

Drone Cell Preference

  • Larvae more attractive

  • Larvae attractive longer

  • Cells larger

  • Longer drone development



Symptoms of varroa mite
Symptoms of Varroa Mite

  • Reduced adult bee population

  • Crawling bees (Crippled Winged Adults)

  • Spotty brood with EFB/Sacbrood symptoms

  • Queen supercedure

  • Loss of hive


Monitoring techniques
Monitoring Techniques

  • Capping scratcher


Monitoring techniques1
Monitoring Techniques

  • Capping scratcher

  • Ether roll


Monitoring techniques2
Monitoring Techniques

  • Capping scratcher

  • Ether roll

  • Sticky board


Monitoring techniques3
Monitoring Techniques

  • Capping scratcher

  • Ether roll

  • Sticky board

  • Sugar shake /

    Alcohol wash


Monitoring techniques4
Monitoring Techniques

  • Sticky board

    Spring – 40 mites per day

    Summer – 60 mites per day

  • Sugar shake / Alcohol wash

    5 – 7 mites per 100 bees


Management techniques
Management Techniques

Cultural Control

  • Drone trap


Management techniques1
Management Techniques

Physical / Mechanical Control

  • Screen Bottom Board


Management techniques2
Management Techniques

Physical / Mechanical Control

  • Screen Bottom Board

  • Sugar Dusting


Management techniques3
Management Techniques

Genetic Control

  • Hygienic

  • Russian

  • VSH (SMR)


Management techniques4
Management Techniques

Biological Control

  • Hirsutella thompsonii fungus


Management techniques5
Management Techniques

Chemical Control

  • Bio-pesticides

    • Thymol based

      • Apilife VAR

      • Apiguard


Management techniques6
Management Techniques

Chemical Control

  • Bio-pesticides

    • Thymol based

      • Apilife VAR

      • Apiguard

    • Sugar Ester

      • Sucrocide


Management techniques7
Management Techniques

Chemical Control

  • Acid Treatments

    • Formic Acid

    • Oxalic Acid

    • Acetic Acid


Management techniques8
Management Techniques

Chemical Control

  • Synthetic miticides

    • Amitraz

    • Apistan

    • CheckMite+



Miticide effect on honey bee queen acceptance
Miticide Effect on Honey Bee Queen Acceptance

From Pettis et al. 2004 Apidologie



Lethal dosage levels of miticides
Lethal Dosage Levels of Miticides

  • Menthol

    Oral LD50 3180 mg/kg

  • Formic Acid

    Oral LD50 1100 mg/kg

  • Fluvalinate

    Dermal LD50 20,000 mg/kg

  • Coumaphos

    Dermal LD50 860 mg/kg

All values are provided from tests on rats


Varroa mite control
Varroa Mite Control

  • Use proven and approved mite treatment

    • Rotate stock

    • Rotate treatment

  • Chemicals should be last option - not first

  • Feed bees

    • Carbohydrate

    • Nitrogen

  • Reduce stress and diseases


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