Thermodynamics
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Thermodynamics. ENTC 370. Announcements. Course Syllabus Class Webpage http://etidweb.tamu.edu/classes/entc370/ Classnotes in Power Point Homework assignments and solutions Announcements eCampus Grades will be regularly posted through eCampus Lab Manual (next slide)

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Thermodynamics

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Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics

ENTC 370


Announcements

Announcements

  • Course Syllabus

  • Class Webpage

    • http://etidweb.tamu.edu/classes/entc370/

    • Classnotes in Power Point

    • Homework assignments and solutions

    • Announcements

  • eCampus

    • Grades will be regularly posted through eCampus

    • Lab Manual (next slide)

    • Post other material/annoucements


Announcements1

Announcements

  • Labs

    • A lab manual is available for this course

      • Just go to eCampus to download electronic version of lab manual (PDF file)

    • Lab exercises: 40% Computational (EES) + 60% Hands On

  • No labs this week


What is thermodynamics

What is Thermodynamics?

  • Is the science of energy

  • Deals with energy transformations, including heat and work, and the physical properties of substances involved in the transformation (Jones & Hawkins, 1986)

  • Conservation of Energy Principle: Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed


What is thermodynamics1

What is Thermodynamics?

  • Thermodynamics is used to describe and understand energy systems

    • All energy systems are constrained by the laws of physics (1st and 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics)

    • 1st law of Thermodynamics: Expression of Conservation of Energy Principle

    • 2nd Law of Thermodynamics: Energy also has quality, energy processes occur in the direction of decreasing quality

      • Heat flows from Hotto Cold


What is energy

What is Energy?

  • In physics, energy is a conserved extensive property of a physical system, which cannot be observed directly but can be calculated from its state.

  • It is impossible to give a comprehensive definition of energy because of the many forms it may take, but the most common definition is that it is the capacity of a system to perform work.

  • EIA (Energy Information Agency): http://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/index.cfm?page=about_home


Why is thermodynamics important

Why is Thermodynamics Important?

  • Energy affects the World Economy

  • Energy is used everyday by everyone

    • For design and analysis of thermal systems or to understand how energy is produced or consumed

  • Depending on the source, it can be renewable or non-renewable

    • Renewable: Wind, Solar, Geothermal, Tidal

    • Non-renewable: Fossil Fuels (Oil, Coal, Tar, Wood), Nuclear Fuel

    • http://www.eia.doe.gov/

    • http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/petroleum/info_glance/petroleum.html


Sources of energy

Sources of Energy

http://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/index.cfm?page=about_sources_of_energy


Uses of energy

Uses of Energy


Fuel used for transportation

Fuel Used for Transportation


Energy consumption vs time

Energy Consumption Vs. Time

Forecasts: http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/ieo/


Thermodynamics

How is Energy Transformed, Used and Delivered?

→ Energy Systems


Energy system steam power plant

Energy System: Steam Power Plant


Nuclear power plant

Nuclear Power Plant

http://science.howstuffworks.com/nuclear-power2.htm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/05/nuclear_fuel/html/mining.stm


Examples of energy system boilers

Examples of Energy System: Boilers

Water-tube boilers

Fire-tube boiler

http://science.howstuffworks.com/


Example of energy system gas turbine

Example of Energy System: Gas Turbine

http://science.howstuffworks.com/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine

http://www.rolls-royce.com/interactive_games/journey03/index.html


Energy system example car engine

Energy System Example: Car Engine

http://auto.howstuffworks.com/engine.htm

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sZF6BZeWvUw


Car gasoline or diesel engine

Car (Gasoline or Diesel) Engine

  • http://auto.howstuffworks.com/engine3.htm

  • http://auto.howstuffworks.com/diesel1.htm

Other Engines

  • Thermoelectric: Direct conversion of thermal energy to electricity (Seebeck effect)

  • Stirling Engine: External Combustion Engine

  • http://videos.howstuffworks.com/planet-green/30320-g-word-sun-catchers-video.htm


Energy system example refrigeration and air conditioning

Energy System Example: Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

Refrigeration Units

Air Conditioning Unit

http://www.rdisystems.com/minisite/service/refrigeration-animation

http://science.howstuffworks.com/


Purpose and objective

Purpose and Objective

  • Understand the key concepts in thermodynamics (i.e. physical properties, laws of thermodynamics, etc.)

  • Use of the 1st and 2nd law, system conditions and material properties to solve real problems

    • “Don’t want to shoot in the dark”

    • Used to determine what is possible or impossible

  • Learn how to logically and methodically solve thermodynamics problems

    • Lifelong skills:

      known + methodology => Solution (unknown)


Thermodynamic systems open or closed

Thermodynamic Systems:Open or Closed

  • System is:

    • Quantity of matter or region of space chosen for study and analysis

  • Surroundings are:

    • Region outside the system

Surroundings

System

Boundary


Closed system

Closed System

  • Closed system:

    • Fixed mass and no mass can enter or leave system

    • Energy can cross boundary and boundary can move (Example: Piston-Cylinder device)

Closed

System

No mass transfer

Heat transfer


Thermodynamics

A closed system consists of a fixed amount of mass and no mass may cross the system boundary. The closed system boundary may move.

Examples of closed systems are sealed tanks and piston cylinder devices (note the volume does not have to be fixed). However, energy in the form of heat and work may cross the boundaries of a closed system.

Piston-Cylinder Device

Rigid Container


Thermodynamics

Open System

  • Open system or control volume:

    • Mass and energy can cross boundary

    • Examples: Compressors, turbines, and nozzles

Open

System

Mass transfer

Heat transfer


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