When i see a cation i see a positive ion
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“When I see a cation, I see a positive ion; PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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+. C. ion.”. A. ion : . a charged particle (i.e., a charged atom or group of atoms). Ions and Ionic Compounds . anion : a (–) ion . cation : a (+) ion . -- . more e – than p +. -- . more p + than e –. a cation a fish. -- . -- . formed when… atoms gain e –.

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“When I see a cation, I see a positive ion;

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+

C

ion.”

A

ion:

a charged particle

(i.e., a charged atom or

group of atoms)

Ions and Ionic

Compounds

anion: a (–) ion

cation: a (+) ion

--

more e– than p+

--

more p+ than e–

a cation

a fish

--

--

formed when…

atoms gain e–

formed when…

atoms lose e–

a cat

keeping

anion

a fish

n

A

ions

are

negative

ions.

“When I see a cation, I see a positive ion;

that is, I…


polyatomic ion: a charged group of atoms

Memorize:

NH4+

CH3COO–

PO43–

MnO4–

ammonium

acetate

phosphate

permanganate

NO3–

ClO3–

BrO3–

IO3–

nitrate

chlorate

bromate

iodate

chromate

dichromate

CN–

OH–

cyanide

hydroxide

CrO42–

Cr2O72–

carbonate

bicarbonate

sulfate

bisulfate

CO32–

HCO3–

SO42–

HSO4–


Ionic compounds, or salts,

consist of oppositely-charged

species bonded by

electrostatic forces.

You can describe salts as

“metal-nonmetal,” but

“cation-anion” is better.


has neutral charge;

Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds

chemical formula:

shows types of atoms

and how many of each

To write an ionic compound’s formula, we need:

1. the two types of ions

2. the charge on each ion

NaF

Na+ and F–

BaO

Ba2+ and O2–

Na2O

Na+ and O2–

BaF2

Ba2+ and F–


Parentheses are req’d only with multiple

“bunches” of a particular polyatomic ion.

Ba2+ and SO42–

BaSO4

Mg2+ and NO2–

Mg(NO2)2

NH4+ and ClO3–

NH4ClO3

Sn4+ and SO42–

Sn(SO4)2

Fe3+ and Cr2O72–

Fe2(Cr2O7)3

NH4+ and N3–

(NH4)3N


i.e., “pulled-off-the-

Table” anions

Fixed-Charge Cations withElemental Anions

For this class, thefixed-charge cations are

groups 1, 2, 13, and Ag+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Sc3+,

Y3+, Zr4+, Hf4+, Ta5+.


Na

Ba

A. To name, given

the formula:

1. Use name of cation.

2. Use name of anion (it has the ending “ide”).

sodiumfluoride

NaF

bariumoxide

BaO

sodium oxide

Na2O

barium fluoride

BaF2


Zn

Ca

B. To write formula,

Ag

given the name:

1. Write symbols for the two types of ions.

2. Balance charges to write formula.

Ag+

Ag2S

S2–

silversulfide

Zn2+

P3–

Zn3P2

zincphosphide

I–

CaI2

Ca2+

calciumiodide


i.e., “pulled-off-the-

Table” anions

Variable-Charge Cations withElemental Anions

For this class, thevariable-charge cations are

Pb2+/Pb4+, Sn2+/Sn4+, and all transition elements not listed above.


Cu

Fe

A. To name, given the formula:

  • Figure out charge on

  • cation.

2. Write name of cation.

3. Write Roman numerals

in ( ) to show cation’s charge.

Stock System

of nomenclature

4. Write name of anion.

Fe2+

Fe?

iron(II)oxide

FeO

O2–

Fe?

O2–

Fe2O3

Fe3+

Fe?

O2–

O2–

Fe3+

iron(III)oxide

CuBr

Cu?

Br–

copper(I)bromide

Cu+

CuBr2

Br–

copper(II)bromide

Cu2+

Cu?

Br–


Co

Sn

B. To find the formula, given the name:

1. Write symbols for the two types of ions.

2. Balance charges to write formula.

cobalt(III)chloride

Co3+

Cl–

CoCl3

Sn4+

O2–

SnO2

tin(IV) oxide

Sn2+

tin(II)oxide

O2–

SnO


Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions

Insert name of ion

where it should go

in the compound’s

name.

But first...

oxyanions: polyatomic ions containing oxygen

“Most common” oxyanions:

BrO3–

bromate

PO43–

phosphate

IO3–

iodate

SO42–

sulfate

ClO3–

chlorate

CO32–

carbonate

NO3–

nitrate


If an oxyanion differs from the above by the # of O

atoms, the name changes are as follows:

one more O = per_____ate

“most common” # of O = _____ate

one fewer O = _____ite

two fewer O = hypo_____ite


Write formulas:

iron(III) nitrite

Fe3+

NO2–

Fe(NO2)3

ammonium phosphide

(NH4)3P

NH4+

P3–

NH4ClO2

ClO2–

NH4+

ammonium chlorite

zinc phosphate

Zn3(PO4)2

PO43–

Zn2+

lead(II) permanganate

MnO4–

Pb2+

Pb(MnO4)2


Write names:

(NH4)2SO4

ammonium sulfate

silver bromate

AgBrO3

(NH4)3N

ammonium nitride

CrO42–

uranium(VI) chromate

U6+

U?

CrO42–

U(CrO4)3

CrO42–

Cr2(SO3)3

Cr?

chromium(III) sulfite

Cr3+

SO32–

Cr3+

Cr?

SO32–

SO32–


Hydrogen hydroxide:

A Tale of Danger and Irresponsibility

-- THE major component of acid rain

-- found in all cancer cells

-- inhalation can be deadly

-- excessive ingestion results in acute physical symptoms:

e.g., frequent urination,

bloated sensation,

profuse sweating

-- often an industrial byproduct of chemical

reactions; dumped wholesale into rivers and lakes


Binary Acid Nomenclature

1. Write “hydro.”

2. Write prefix of the other element,

followed by “-ic acid.”

Acid Nomenclature

binary acids: acids w/H and one other element

HF

hydrofluoric acid

HCl

hydrochloric acid

hydrobromic acid

HBr

hydroiodic acid

HI

hydrosulfuric acid

H2S


Hydrooxic Acid:

A Tale of Danger and Irresponsibility

-- THE major component of acid rain

-- found in all cancer cells

-- inhalation can be deadly

-- excessive ingestion results in acute physical symptoms:

e.g., frequent urination,

bloated sensation,

profuse sweating

-- often an industrial byproduct of chemical

reactions; dumped wholesale into rivers and lakes


oxyacids: acids containing H, O,

and one other element

Oxyacid Nomenclature

For “most common” forms of the oxyanions,

write prefix of oxyanion, followed by “-ic acid.”

HBrO3

bromic acid

HClO3

chloric acid

carbonic acid

H2CO3

sulfuric acid

H2SO4

phosphoric acid

H3PO4


If an oxyacid differs from the above by

the # of O atoms, the name changes are:

one more O = per_____ic acid

“most common” # of O = _____icacid

one fewer O = _____ous acid

two fewer O = hypo_____ous acid

HClO4

perchloric acid

HClO3

“most common” 

chloric acid

chlorous acid

HClO2

HClO

hypochlorous acid

phosphorous acid

H3PO3

hypobromous acid

HBrO

persulfuric acid

H2SO5


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