When i see a cation i see a positive ion
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+. C. ion.”. A. ion : . a charged particle (i.e., a charged atom or group of atoms). Ions and Ionic Compounds . anion : a (–) ion . cation : a (+) ion . -- . more e – than p +. -- . more p + than e –. a cation a fish. -- . -- . formed when… atoms gain e –.

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When i see a cation i see a positive ion

+

C

ion.”

A

ion:

a charged particle

(i.e., a charged atom or

group of atoms)

Ions and Ionic

Compounds

anion: a (–) ion

cation: a (+) ion

--

more e– than p+

--

more p+ than e–

a cation

a fish

--

--

formed when…

atoms gain e–

formed when…

atoms lose e–

a cat

keeping

anion

a fish

n

A

ions

are

negative

ions.

“When I see a cation, I see a positive ion;

that is, I…


When i see a cation i see a positive ion

polyatomic ion: a charged group of atoms

Memorize:

NH4+

CH3COO–

PO43–

MnO4–

ammonium

acetate

phosphate

permanganate

NO3–

ClO3–

BrO3–

IO3–

nitrate

chlorate

bromate

iodate

chromate

dichromate

CN–

OH–

cyanide

hydroxide

CrO42–

Cr2O72–

carbonate

bicarbonate

sulfate

bisulfate

CO32–

HCO3–

SO42–

HSO4–


When i see a cation i see a positive ion

Ionic compounds, or salts,

consist of oppositely-charged

species bonded by

electrostatic forces.

You can describe salts as

“metal-nonmetal,” but

“cation-anion” is better.


When i see a cation i see a positive ion

has neutral charge;

Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds

chemical formula:

shows types of atoms

and how many of each

To write an ionic compound’s formula, we need:

1. the two types of ions

2. the charge on each ion

NaF

Na+ and F–

BaO

Ba2+ and O2–

Na2O

Na+ and O2–

BaF2

Ba2+ and F–


When i see a cation i see a positive ion

Parentheses are req’d only with multiple

“bunches” of a particular polyatomic ion.

Ba2+ and SO42–

BaSO4

Mg2+ and NO2–

Mg(NO2)2

NH4+ and ClO3–

NH4ClO3

Sn4+ and SO42–

Sn(SO4)2

Fe3+ and Cr2O72–

Fe2(Cr2O7)3

NH4+ and N3–

(NH4)3N


When i see a cation i see a positive ion

i.e., “pulled-off-the-

Table” anions

Fixed-Charge Cations withElemental Anions

For this class, thefixed-charge cations are

groups 1, 2, 13, and Ag+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Sc3+,

Y3+, Zr4+, Hf4+, Ta5+.


When i see a cation i see a positive ion

Na

Ba

A. To name, given

the formula:

1. Use name of cation.

2. Use name of anion (it has the ending “ide”).

sodiumfluoride

NaF

bariumoxide

BaO

sodium oxide

Na2O

barium fluoride

BaF2


When i see a cation i see a positive ion

Zn

Ca

B. To write formula,

Ag

given the name:

1. Write symbols for the two types of ions.

2. Balance charges to write formula.

Ag+

Ag2S

S2–

silversulfide

Zn2+

P3–

Zn3P2

zincphosphide

I–

CaI2

Ca2+

calciumiodide


When i see a cation i see a positive ion

i.e., “pulled-off-the-

Table” anions

Variable-Charge Cations withElemental Anions

For this class, thevariable-charge cations are

Pb2+/Pb4+, Sn2+/Sn4+, and all transition elements not listed above.


When i see a cation i see a positive ion

Cu

Fe

A. To name, given the formula:

  • Figure out charge on

  • cation.

2. Write name of cation.

3. Write Roman numerals

in ( ) to show cation’s charge.

Stock System

of nomenclature

4. Write name of anion.

Fe2+

Fe?

iron(II)oxide

FeO

O2–

Fe?

O2–

Fe2O3

Fe3+

Fe?

O2–

O2–

Fe3+

iron(III)oxide

CuBr

Cu?

Br–

copper(I)bromide

Cu+

CuBr2

Br–

copper(II)bromide

Cu2+

Cu?

Br–


When i see a cation i see a positive ion

Co

Sn

B. To find the formula, given the name:

1. Write symbols for the two types of ions.

2. Balance charges to write formula.

cobalt(III)chloride

Co3+

Cl–

CoCl3

Sn4+

O2–

SnO2

tin(IV) oxide

Sn2+

tin(II)oxide

O2–

SnO


When i see a cation i see a positive ion

Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions

Insert name of ion

where it should go

in the compound’s

name.

But first...

oxyanions: polyatomic ions containing oxygen

“Most common” oxyanions:

BrO3–

bromate

PO43–

phosphate

IO3–

iodate

SO42–

sulfate

ClO3–

chlorate

CO32–

carbonate

NO3–

nitrate


When i see a cation i see a positive ion

If an oxyanion differs from the above by the # of O

atoms, the name changes are as follows:

one more O = per_____ate

“most common” # of O = _____ate

one fewer O = _____ite

two fewer O = hypo_____ite


When i see a cation i see a positive ion

Write formulas:

iron(III) nitrite

Fe3+

NO2–

Fe(NO2)3

ammonium phosphide

(NH4)3P

NH4+

P3–

NH4ClO2

ClO2–

NH4+

ammonium chlorite

zinc phosphate

Zn3(PO4)2

PO43–

Zn2+

lead(II) permanganate

MnO4–

Pb2+

Pb(MnO4)2


When i see a cation i see a positive ion

Write names:

(NH4)2SO4

ammonium sulfate

silver bromate

AgBrO3

(NH4)3N

ammonium nitride

CrO42–

uranium(VI) chromate

U6+

U?

CrO42–

U(CrO4)3

CrO42–

Cr2(SO3)3

Cr?

chromium(III) sulfite

Cr3+

SO32–

Cr3+

Cr?

SO32–

SO32–


When i see a cation i see a positive ion

Hydrogen hydroxide:

A Tale of Danger and Irresponsibility

-- THE major component of acid rain

-- found in all cancer cells

-- inhalation can be deadly

-- excessive ingestion results in acute physical symptoms:

e.g., frequent urination,

bloated sensation,

profuse sweating

-- often an industrial byproduct of chemical

reactions; dumped wholesale into rivers and lakes


When i see a cation i see a positive ion

Binary Acid Nomenclature

1. Write “hydro.”

2. Write prefix of the other element,

followed by “-ic acid.”

Acid Nomenclature

binary acids: acids w/H and one other element

HF

hydrofluoric acid

HCl

hydrochloric acid

hydrobromic acid

HBr

hydroiodic acid

HI

hydrosulfuric acid

H2S


When i see a cation i see a positive ion

Hydrooxic Acid:

A Tale of Danger and Irresponsibility

-- THE major component of acid rain

-- found in all cancer cells

-- inhalation can be deadly

-- excessive ingestion results in acute physical symptoms:

e.g., frequent urination,

bloated sensation,

profuse sweating

-- often an industrial byproduct of chemical

reactions; dumped wholesale into rivers and lakes


When i see a cation i see a positive ion

oxyacids: acids containing H, O,

and one other element

Oxyacid Nomenclature

For “most common” forms of the oxyanions,

write prefix of oxyanion, followed by “-ic acid.”

HBrO3

bromic acid

HClO3

chloric acid

carbonic acid

H2CO3

sulfuric acid

H2SO4

phosphoric acid

H3PO4


When i see a cation i see a positive ion

If an oxyacid differs from the above by

the # of O atoms, the name changes are:

one more O = per_____ic acid

“most common” # of O = _____icacid

one fewer O = _____ous acid

two fewer O = hypo_____ous acid

HClO4

perchloric acid

HClO3

“most common” 

chloric acid

chlorous acid

HClO2

HClO

hypochlorous acid

phosphorous acid

H3PO3

hypobromous acid

HBrO

persulfuric acid

H2SO5


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