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Effective Energy Management. Effective Energy Management. Develop baseline Identify and quantify savings opportunities Measure and benchmark to sustain efforts. 1. Energy Use Baseline. Billing analysis How energy is priced Plant energy balance Where energy is used

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Effective Energy Management

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## Effective Energy Management

### Effective Energy Management

• Develop baseline

• Identify and quantify savings opportunities

• Measure and benchmark to sustain efforts

### 1. Energy Use Baseline

Billing analysis

How energy is priced

Plant energy balance

Where energy is used

Lean energy analysis (LEA)

What drives changes in energy use

### Utility Bill Analysis

• Analyze rate schedule

• Verify billing amounts

• Check for saving opportunities:

• Primary/secondary

• Power factor correction

• Meter consolidation

• Demand reduction potential

• Benchmark costs

### Plant Energy Balance

• 1) Estimate energy use from:

• rated power

• operating hours

• 2) Calibrate sum against measured total energy use

### Lean Energy Analysis

• Understand what drives changes in Energy

• Quantify “Waste” and “Lean”

• Model:

Energy = a + b Production + c Weather

HS

Find

Tcp

R2 = 0.92

### Model Fuel Use vs Production: 2P

R2 = 0.02 Prod Slope Negative

### Model Fuel Use vs Toa and Prod: 3PH-MVR

R2 = 0.97 Prod Slope = Positive

### Disaggregate Fuel Use

Fuel

Weather = 28%

Production = 58%

Independent = 14%

Temperature

R2 = 0.67

R2 = 0.32

R2 = 0.82

### Disaggregate Electricity Use

Electricity

Weather

= 10%

Production = 39%

Independent = 51%

Temperature

### Lean Energy Analysis

Called “Lean Energy Analysis”

because of synergy with “Lean Manufacturing”.

In lean manufacturing, “any activity that does not add value to the product is waste”.

Similarly, “any energy that does not add value to a product or the facility is also waste”.

### Quantified “Leaness” of Fuel Use

“Independent” is a metric of energy not added to product

Fuel LEA = %Production + %Weather

Fuel LEA = 86%

### Quantified “Leaness” of Electricity Use

“Independent” is a metric of energy not added to product

Electricity LEA = %Production + %Weather = 49%

Electricity LEA = 49%

58%

39%

### Use Lean Energy Analysis To Discover Savings Opportunities

LEA Indicators of Savings Opportunities

• High “Independent” indicates waste

• Departure from expected shape

• High scatter indicates poor control

### High Data ScatterIdentifies Control Opportunities

Heating Energy Varies by 3X at Same Temp!

### Departure From Expected Shape Identifies Malfunctioning Economizers

• Air conditioning electricity use should flatten below 50 F

• Audit found malfunctioning economizers

### Lean Energy Analysis

Quick but accurate disaggregation of energy use:

Quantifies the energy not adding value to product or the facility

Helps identify savings opportunities

Provides an accurate baseline for measuring the effectiveness of energy management efforts over time.

### 2. Identify and Quantify Saving Opportunities

• Identifying energy savings

• Use “Integrated Systems + Principles Approach (ISPA)

• ISPA is effective and thorough

• Quantifying energy savings

• Requires competent engineering

• May warrant energy audit

• May consider energy savings performance contract (ESPC)

### Prioritize Saving Opportunities

• Multiple filters

• Financial return on investment

• Rank versus other energy saving opportunities

• Rank versus other requests for capital

• Risk

• Consistent with other priorities

• Available and knowledgeable staff to manage project

### Implement Savings Opportunities

• Management commitment

• Operator and maintenance education and buy in

### 3. Measurement and Benchmarking

• Sustaining energy efficiency efforts requires that effectiveness of past efforts be accurately evaluated.

• Verify the performance of past energy-efficiency efforts

• Inform the selection of future energy-efficiency initiatives

• Help develop energy-efficiency targets

• Measurement

• Extend LEA with sliding NAC and EI to measure energy efficiency improvement

• Benchmarking

• Compare NAC and EI for inter-facility benchmarking

### Normalized Energy Intensity

1) Characterize performance with

‘Energy signature’ model

2) Remove noise with

‘Normalized annual consumption’ NAC

3) Track performance with

‘Sliding NAC’ analysis

4) Benchmark performance with

‘Multi-site sliding NAC’ analysis

DNEI

NEI

### Case Study: Turn off Make-up Air Units During Non-Production Hours

Heating Slope Decreases by 50%

Baseline Post-retrofit

### Sliding NEI

Fuel NEI decreased by 23%

Independent of weather/production changes

### Summary: Effective Energy Management

• Develop baseline

• Plant energy balance

• Lean energy analysis (LEA)

• Take action

• Identify and quantify energy saving opportunities

• Prioritize energy saving opportunities

• Implement energy saving opportunities

• Measure and benchmark to sustain efforts

• Develop metrics for system energy efficiency

• Measure energy efficiency improvement with sliding NAC and EI

• Compare energy efficiency between facilities with NAC and EI