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MATERIAL FLOW ANALYSIS. Strategies for waste minimization. What are materials?. Goods/raw materials (e.g. wood, gravel, PVC) Elements (e.g. carbon, cadmium) Compounds (e.g. benzene, methane). What is a material flow analysis?.

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MATERIAL FLOW ANALYSIS

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Material flow analysis l.jpg

MATERIAL FLOW ANALYSIS


Strategies for waste minimization l.jpg

Strategies for waste minimization


What are materials l.jpg

What are materials?

  • Goods/raw materials (e.g. wood, gravel, PVC)

  • Elements (e.g. carbon, cadmium)

  • Compounds (e.g. benzene, methane)


What is a material flow analysis l.jpg

What is a material flow analysis?

A material flow analysis is a systematic reconstruction of the way a chemical element, a compound or a material takes through the natural and/or economic cycle.

A material flow analysis is generally based on the principle of physical balance.

Definition of the Commission of inquiry "Protection of human life and the environment" of the German Bundestag


Initial situation in a paint shop l.jpg

Initial situation in a paint shop


Material flows in a car repair shop l.jpg

Material flows in a car repair shop


How does a balance work l.jpg

How does a balance work?

Input mass =

Output mass

+ Storage

(Without

chemical

reaction)


Material flow analysis and eco balances l.jpg

Material flow analysis and eco-balances

Eco-balances

  • Analyse the whole life-cycle of a product

  • Analyse the ecological effects

  • Assess the material and energy consumptions emerging during a life cycle and the arising environmental effects.


Objectives of a material flow analysis l.jpg

Objectives of a material flow analysis

  • Trace the flow of raw materials through the company to establish connections within the process

  • Retrace waste and emissions to the point where they are generated

  • Identify weak points (inefficiencies)

  • Define the basis for evaluation

  • Edit data in a decision-oriented way

  • Set priorities for appropriate measures to minimize waste and emissions


Criteria for the selection of a material l.jpg

Criteria for the selection of a material

  • Quantity of the material flow

  • Costs of the material flow

  • Toxicity of the material flow

  • Legal aspects of the material flow


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How to carry out a material flow analysis?

1. Define the objectives and parameters to be monitored

2. Limit the balance scope

3. Limit the balance period

4. Identify and define the process steps

5. Draw the flowcharts: material flows – quality

6. Draw up the balances: material flows – quantity

7. Interpret the results and draw conclusions


Material flow analysis of machine painting l.jpg

Material flow analysis of machine painting


Step 1 parameters monitored l.jpg

Step 1: Parameters monitored

Paints, solvents, (all process materials)

Step 2: Balance scope

Painting chamber and drying

Step 3: Balance period

1 year


Step 4 process steps of machine painting l.jpg

Step 4: Process steps of machine painting

Process steps:

  • Pre-treatment

  • Priming, painting

  • Drying

    Additional equipment:

  • Steam generator

  • Exhaust air filter

  • Cleaning of spray gun and container


Step 5 flowchart l.jpg

Step 5: Flowchart

  • Representing process steps by rectangles

  • Representing material flows by arrows


Step 5 flowchart16 l.jpg

Air filter

Priming/

Painting

Pre-treatment

Drying

Steam generator

Cleaning

Balance limit

Step 5: Flowchart


Step 5 flowchart17 l.jpg

filter

Filter, paint

Air, thinner

Air and thinner

Air filter

Air, paint, thinner

Priming/

Painting

Pre-treatment

Drying

Oily

parts l

Partswet

Partsclean

Parts with paint

Tools

Steam generator

Cleaning

Water,detergent

Balance limit

Thinner

Dustcontainers

Wastethinner

Step 5: Flowchart

Paint, thinner, filler, tape, film, air, container


Step 6 balances l.jpg

Step 6: Balances

  • Input = output for the whole system

  • Input = output for the single steps


Step 5 flowchart19 l.jpg

E8, E9, E 10,

A3

E3, E4, E5, E6, E7

A4, A7

Air filter

Priming/

Painting

Pre-treatment

Drying

E1

A1

Steam generator

Cleaning

E2

Balance limit

E11

A4, A5, A8, A9

A6

Step 5: Flowchart

A2


Quantitative material flow analysis l.jpg

Quantitative material flow analysis


Quantitative material flow analysis21 l.jpg

Quantitative material flow analysis


Step 7 interpretation l.jpg

Step 7: Interpretation

By identifying parameters

Calculation of the so-called “application efficiency":

Dry surface film mass Efficiency = _______________________

Input solid state mass

In this case for small pieces < 10%

In this case on average < 20%

State of the art?


Typical efficiencies application efficiency expressed in solids l.jpg

Typical efficiencies (application efficiency, expressed in % solids):


Evaluation of a material flow analysis l.jpg

Evaluation of a material flow analysis


Evaluation of a material flow analysis 2 l.jpg

Evaluation of a material flow analysis – 2

Possible parameters:

  • Efficiency factors (ratio of use to costs)

  • Quality factors (ratio of real efficiency factor to the theoretically possible efficiency factor)

    Linkage with costs


Data sources l.jpg

Data sources

  • Accounting

  • Warehousing

  • Collection of process data

  • Operational accounting

  • Personal information (e.g. methods engineer)

  • Estimates

  • Measurements

  • Original documents

  • ...


Measuring water volumes l.jpg

Measuring water volumes

  • Water meter

  • Turbine wheel meter

  • Rotameter

  • Induction measuring instrument

  • Ultrasonic flowmeter

  • Weir

  • Measuring at water consumers

    (stop watch, bucket)

2,5

0,31 h 2g

o

q =

tan o


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Recommendations 1for a material flow analysis

  • Carry out the material flow analysis in steps

  • An estimate is better than doing nothing at all

  • Even with estimates it is possible to improve

  • 80 – 90% of accuracy is sufficient

  • Use simple measuring instruments

  • Use indicators

  • If necessary, contact the supplier or plant manufacturer


Recommendations 2 for a material flow analysis l.jpg

Recommendations – 2for a material flow analysis

  • It is not essential to follow the instructions or procedures in great detail, a creative approach is often helpful.

  • Even by simply working with the balances you can sometimes achieve improvements.

  • It is important to translate the results into the language of the respective target group (monetary units, kg, pictures, comparisons, etc.)


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