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Glass-ceramics and ceramics as biomaterials for dental restoration. W. Höland, V. Rheinberger, E. Apel, Ch. Ritzberger, H. Kappert. Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Li-9494 Schaan, Liechtenstein. Derby, UK, September, 2007. Outline. I. Fundamentals on ceramic and glass-ceramic technology.

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Glass-ceramics and ceramics as biomaterials for dental restoration

W. Höland, V. Rheinberger, E. Apel,

Ch. Ritzberger, H. Kappert

Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Li-9494 Schaan, Liechtenstein

Derby, UK, September, 2007


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Outline

I. Fundamentals on ceramic and glass-ceramic technology

  • Glass-ceramics as biomaterials for dental restoration

  • 1. Leucite-apatite

  • 2. Leucite

  • 3. Lithium disilicate and apatite

III. Ceramics as biomaterials for dental restoration

1. ZrO2

2. Fusion of ceramic and apatite glass-ceramic

IV. Summary


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I. Fundamentals of

ceramic technology

I

application

chemical

composition

properties

microstructure

applied

processing

nucleation

processing

crystallization

W. Höland & G.H. Beall, Glass-ceramic technology.

The American Ceramic Society, 2002, and J. Wiley, 2006

W. Höland, Glaskeramik, vdf / UTB, 2006


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I. Fundamentals of

ceramic technology

I

designing of glass-ceramics and ceramics

controlled nucleation and crystallization

relationship between microstructure and properties


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II. Dental glass-ceramics as restorative

BIOMATERIALS

II

1

2

glass-ceramic on a metal framework

glass-ceramic as single units

(metal-free)

3

glass-ceramic as

multi-unit bridge

(metal-free)


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leucite

II

1. Leucite-apatite glass-ceramic

powder

monolith

apatite

2 µm

1 µm

700 °C / 8 h +

1050 °C / 1 h

SEM

(10 sec, 2.5% HF)

700 °C / 8 h +

1050 °C / 1 h


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2. Opal leucite glass-ceramic

II

and

volume phase separation

surface crystallization

surface

volume

1 µm

20 µm

900 °C/1h

SEM ,1.25 %HF, 4s

1020 °C/1h


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Processing by molding

glaciers

long term viscous flow

II

v i s c o u s f l o w


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pressure unit

pressing plunger

(1.8 - 2.0 MPa)

furnace chamber

(1075, or 1180 °C)

Al2O3 plunger

glass-ceramic

ingot

investment

cylinder

specimen

II

2. Leucite glass-ceramics

lost wax technique

molding

mold

IPS Empress®


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II

2. Leucite glass-ceramics

machinabilty

CAD System

processing by CAD/CAM:

fast increasing technology

leucite-type

glass-ceramics


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3.a) lithium disilicate and 3.b) apatite glass-ceramic

II

lithium disilicate gc

apatite gc

IPS Empress® 2, IPS Eris®


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II

3. Lithium disilicate glass-ceramics

[1] dental standard ISO 6872


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II

3. Lithium disilicate glass-ceramic

final product

Li2Si2O5

920 °C, pressing

crystallinity: 65 Vol.%

5 µm

IPS e.max®

SEM

(3 s, ceramex)


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  • III. Ceramics as biomaterials for dental restoration

III

1. ZrO2

2. Fusion of ceramic and apatite glass-ceramic


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properties

of the final product

1mm

Sintramat

biocompatible

crystallite size ~0.5-0.65mm

density ~99.5%

flexural strength>900MPa

KIC approx. 6 MPa· m1/2

100-400°C approx. 10.5 10-6 K-1m/m

SEM


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III

2. fusion of ceramic and apatite glass-ceramic

apatite glass-ceramic

natural dentin

1 µm

1 µm

biomimetic process

nature as example

SEM (3 % HF, 10 s)

Glass-ceramic as veneering material


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Glass-ceramic and ceramics as

biomaterials for dental restoration

designing the biomaterials: control the microstructure and to predict special properties based on new technologies

high strength, tough, durable materials

natural appearance, optical properties close to those of natural tooth

processing: molding or machining - effective technologies

veneering: sintering with fluoroapatite containing glass-ceramic

IV

IV. Summary


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