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COMPREHENSION. Reading First Stonewall Resort Fall ’07 -adapted from presentations by Dr. Joe Torgenson and Dr. Anita Archer . Before Reading passages. Teach the pronunciation of difficult to read words. Teach the meaning of critical, unknown vocabulary words.

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COMPREHENSION

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COMPREHENSION

Reading First

Stonewall Resort

Fall ’07

-adapted from presentations by

Dr. Joe Torgenson and Dr. Anita Archer


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Before Reading passages

  • Teach the pronunciation of difficult to read words.

  • Teach the meaning of critical, unknown vocabulary words.

  • Teach or activate any necessary background knowledge.

  • Preview the story or article.


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Pronunciation

  • If students can read the words in a passage accurately and fluently, their reading comprehension will be enhanced.


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Pronunciation

  • Carefully and systematically teach and review decoding skills that have been introduced in the core reading program.


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Pronunciation

  • Teach before passage is read:

    • Program indication

    • Difficult text

    • Outside core program

  • Pre-teach to struggling readers small group.

  • Focus on accuracy, then fluency.

  • Blend with vocabulary instruction


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Pronunciation of difficult words

Selection of words

  • Provided by core program

  • If not, preview passage to select

  • Divide words into 2 categories:

    • Tell Words – irregular words, words with untaught elements and foreign words

    • Strategy Words – words that can be decoded with minimal assistance


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1. Tell words

  • This word is ______________.

  • What word? ______________

  • Spell and read the word.

    __________________________

    Examples:

    there along upon woman


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2. Strategy words

  • Single syllable words

    • Precorrect the difficult part of the word

      Look at the underlined letters.

      What sound? ___________

      Sound out the word. (Pause)

      What word? ____________

      rain boat seed


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2. Strategy words

  • Multisyllabic words

    • Segment into decodable parts.

    • Guide students in reading each part.

      What part?___________

      What part? __________

      What part?___________

      What part?___________

      Condensation atmosphere

      If any element is unknown, simply tell students the pronunciation of the element.


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Meaning

  • If students understand the meaning of critical vocabulary in the passage, their comprehension will be enhanced.


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Meaning

  • High-quality Classroom Language

  • Reading Aloud to Students

  • Explicit Vocabulary Instruction

  • Word-learning Strategies

  • Wide Independent Reading


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Meaning

  • Attributes of good vocabulary instruction

    • Multiple exposures

    • Definitional information and contextual information

    • Sufficient amount of instructional time to insure understanding of words

    • Active engagement in instruction


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Meaning

  • Select limited number for robust, explicit vocabulary instruction.

    • 3 to 10 words per story for expanded instruction would be appropriate.

    • Briefly tell the meaning of all other words that are needed for comprehension.


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Meaning

  • Words that are unknown.

  • Words that are critical to passage understanding.

  • Words that students are likely to encounter in the future and are generally useful.

  • “Goldilocks Words”

    • Not too difficult

    • Not too easy

    • Just right


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Meaning


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Meaning

  • Teach words AFTER you have read a story to your students and BEFORE students read a selection.


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  • Routine of Isabel Beck

    • Introduce word

    • Student-friendly explanation

    • Illustrate with examples

    • Ask deep processing questions

    • Examples & non-examples

    • Generate own examples

    • Story starter & then complete sentence


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Review

  • “Word association” Activity

    enemy, disgusting, invited, relieved

    “Tell me the word that I am thinking about.

    Someone that hates you might be called an _____.

    If you didn’t like a food, you might say it is _______.

    When a test is over, you often feel ________________.

    When you are asked to a party, you are ________. “


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Review

  • “Choose” activity

    enemy, disgusting, invited, relieved

  • “If you felt relieved after a test, was the test probably easy or difficult?

  • If an enemy gave you the answers before a test, would you believe the answers to be correct or incorrect?

  • If the food was disgusting, would you ask for more or spit it up?

  • If you were invited to a party, would you be asked to come or to stay away?


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Background knowledge

  • If students have the background knowledge required by a passage, their comprehension will be enhanced.


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Background knowledge

  • Teach it!

    • Strategy # 1 – Introduce as stated in core program. Actively engage students.

    • Strategy # 2 – “Front load” by teaching additional background knowledge.

    • Strategy # 3 – Prior to reading, select a read aloud that provides necessary background knowledge.


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Activate background knowledge

  • Strategy # 1 – Ask questions and engage in discussion to activate

  • Strategy # 2 – KWL strategy

  • Strategy # 3 – Brainstorm topics/questions that might be covered


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Preview

  • If students preview a passage, their comprehension will be enhanced.


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Preview

  • Discover the content to be covered.

  • Learn what is emphasized.

  • Organized

  • Activate background knowledge

  • Interest level


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Preview - narrative

  • Read title. Predict the content of story

  • Preview the illustrations/pictures. Predict the content of the passage.


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Preview – Expository/Informational

  • Read title and predict content.

  • Read introduction and ask “What will we learn in this passage?”

  • Read headings and subheadings. Predict.

  • Read the summary.


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Preview

  • Warm – Up – Science, Social Studies, Health

    • BEGINNING

      • Title

      • Introduction

    • MIDDLE

      • Headings

      • Subheadings

    • END

      • Summary

      • Questions


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Quick Notes from Dr. Archer and Dr. Torgenson

  • Comprehension instruction must mirror the core program to show and continue student gains.

  • Sustain the level of intensity

  • There’s no way to teach perfect when children are present.

  • To comprehend, students must be first taught how to respond.

  • Decoding is necessary but not sufficient for comprehension.


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  • Multisyllabic words –Many students do not read them; but the problem is that English uses them.

  • Learn the rhythm of teaching.

  • Reading First is not about being perfect, but teaching more students to read every year.

  • Scaffold the probability that students can successfully answer the question. Scaffold before, NOT after reading the passage to ensure student understanding.


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  • Questions

  • Books


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