Virginia
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 87

Virginia Driver Education PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 75 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Virginia Driver Education. Module Three. Vision, Vehicle Balance and Laws of Nature. Virginia Department of Education. Module Three. Vision, Vehicle Balance and Laws of Nature Topic 1 Starting, Securing and Exiting Topic 2 Vision and Driving Topic 3 Steering and Braking

Download Presentation

Virginia Driver Education

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Virginia driver education

Virginia Driver Education

Module Three

Vision, Vehicle Balance and Laws of Nature


Virginia driver education

VirginiaDepartment of Education

Module Three

Vision, Vehicle Balance and Laws of Nature

Topic 1Starting, Securing and Exiting

Topic 2Vision and Driving

Topic 3Steering and Braking

Topic 4Laws of Nature

Topic 5Establishing Vehicle Reference Points


Virginia driver education

Topic 1 - Starting Tasks

  • Check/set park brake (P) and place

  • Right foot on brake pedal, heel on floor

  • Left foot on “dead pedal” for balance

  • Key in ignition, and turn to start

  • Check alert, warning lights and gauges

  • Adjust ventilation, accessories, etc

  • Turn headlights on


Virginia driver education

Securing the Vehicle

  • Find a legal, safe parking place

  • Stop and set parking brake

  • Shift gear selector to (P)ark (Shift to Reverse if Manual Transmission)

  • Close windows

  • Turn off accessories

  • Turn ignition switch to “off”

  • Lock ignition switch and remove key

  • Unfasten occupant restraints


Virginia driver education

Exiting the Vehicle

  • Check traffic flow to rear prior to opening door

  • Monitor door swing into adjacent lane or when parked next to another vehicle

  • Exit quickly to avoid conflict with traffic

  • Lock doors

  • Walk toward rear of the vehicle facing traffic


Virginia driver education

Topic 2 - Vision and Driving

  • Drivers base about 90% of all driving decisions on what they see, and 10% on what they hear or feel

  • Drivers must be able to look far enough ahead to make good decisions about speed, lane position, signs, signals, markings, and potential hazards

  • Drivers must be able to see near and far--close enough to read the speedometer, and far enough ahead to see/adjust for hazards


Virginia driver education

Visual Testing

Visual acuity is the measurement of the finest details which can be seen in optimal light conditions


Virginia driver education

Effective Use of Visual Fields

The Three Visual Fields

  • Fovea Vision

    • Visual Lead, Targeting, Signs, Signals

  • Central

    • Referencing, Path of Travel

  • Peripheral Vision

    • Motion and Color Changes


  • Virginia driver education

    The Fovea Vision Area

    Located at the center of the central vision area, the fovea is a small part of the retina and is responsible for our highest visual acuity


    Virginia driver education

    Central Vision

    Central Vision Area (Inner Fringe)

    An area 35 to 38 degrees around foveal vision used for:

    • Referencing Vehicle Position to Roadway

    • Viewing Path of Travel


    Central vision at night

    Central Vision at Night

    • The human eye’s field of vision is much smaller without the help of natural light

    • Depth perception, visual acuity, and color recognition are all compromised at night

    • Minimize glare by looking at the bottom right of the road to avoid approaching headlights

    • Keep it dark in the car

    • Slow down to give yourself longer to react


    Virginia driver education

    Peripheral Vision

    Approximately 90%of vision to each side

    Increases total field of vision to about 180-190and is used to see:

    • Objects to the side

    • Movement and color changes to the side


    Virginia driver education

    Peripheral Vision and the Driving Task

    Drivers use peripheral vision to:

    • See color and object movement

    • See signal changes, road signs, warning lights on the dashboard

    • Monitor traffic

    • Stay within the lane


    Virginia driver education

    Night Time Peripheral Vision

    • Is reduced dramatically due to lack of light to retina and glare

    • While Foveal and Central Vision are also reduced, they become more critical for searching for problems


    Virginia driver education

    Vision is Affected by

    • Smoke

    • Age

    • Dirty Windshield

    • Poor Windshield Wipers

    • Poor night vision

    • Night Blindness

    • Speed

    • Fatigue

    • Drugs

    • Poor weather

    • Darkness

    • Glare

    • Inattention


    Virginia driver education

    Depth Perception

    • Need both eyes to judge the distance between two objects

    • Depth perception allows you to:

    • judge gaps in traffic when turning, merging, or passing

    • judge distance when approaching a vehicle or obstruction


    Virginia driver education

    Poor Depth Perception

    • Stop too far from the stop line or intersection

    • Stop too close to vehicles ahead

    • Move into gaps that are too small

    • Look for gaps that are larger than needed to perform a maneuver

    • Follow other vehicles at unsafe following distance

    • Hit parked cars when parking

    • Have “close calls” when entering traffic, passing, etc.


    Virginia driver education

    • As speed increases

      • Central vision decreases and blurs

      • Peripheral vision decreases

      • Changes in steering exaggerate vehicle movement

    VISION FIELDS NARROW


    Virginia driver education

    Ways to Improve the Vision Fields

    • Clean windows—inside and out

    • Clean lights—be sure they work

    • Check defroster and wiper blades

    • Remove any objects that interfere with vision

    • Adjust mirrors properly

    • Keep sunglasses, flashlight, windshield scraper in vehicle


    Virginia driver education

    Line of Sight

    • Line-of-sight is the distance you can see in your path of travel


    Virginia driver education

    Line-of-Sight (LOS) Restrictions

    • Vision is blocked, speed and position adjustments may be needed until LOS is restored


    Virginia driver education

    Path-of-Travel (POT)

    • The space the vehicle will occupy while traveling to the target area


    Virginia driver education

    Examples of Path-of-Travel Restrictions

    • Space is not available for the vehicle

    Vehicle stopped or blocking intersection

    Narrow lane and no shoulder


    Virginia driver education

    “Target” Far Ahead in the Path of Travel

    Identify the target in this driver’s path of travel

    A “Target” is an object or place far ahead in the center of your path of travel


    Virginia driver education

    Target AREA Provides the BIG Picture

    The Target area is the area drivers must scan to the left and right of the target

    Target Area


    Virginia driver education

    Advantages of Targeting

    • Easier to track vehicle in a straight line

    • Driver looks far ahead of the vehicle, and at the same time gathers information close to the vehicle

    • Driver can plan ahead to better manage risks

    • Targeting develops visual skills essential for managing traction loss and steering control


    Virginia driver education

    The Pavement Around Your Vehicle You Cannot See From the Driver’s Seat

    The driver cannot see anything on the ground in the area outlined above—cars are used to show the size of this area


    Virginia driver education

    Determining Driver Blind Areas

    Marker (foot or cone)

    Place markers (cones, people) at the point where the driver can see the marker, (cone, person’s foot) in contact with the ground


    Virginia driver education

    Using Lane Position to Maximize LOS

    1

    • Select the lane position that gives you the best line of sight and safest path of travel

    • Lane positions are based upon an average lane size of 12-feet wide, and a vehicle 6-feet wide

    2

    3

    4

    5


    Virginia driver education

    Lane Position 1

    2-3 Feet

    2-3 Feet

    Positioned in the center of lane with an equal buffer of space on either side


    Virginia driver education

    Lane Position 2

    3-6 Inches

    Allows for 6 feet of space to the right of the vehicle. Used to prepare for a left turn or when avoiding a problem to the right of the vehicle.


    Virginia driver education

    Lane Position 3

    3-6 Inches

    Allows for 6 feet of space to the left of the vehicle. Used to prepare for a right turn or when avoiding a problem to the left of the vehicle.


    Virginia driver education

    Lane Positions 4 and 5

    4

    5

    Lane positions 4 and 5 – straddling the line to avoid a problem within a lane


    Virginia driver education

    Topic 3 - Basic Maneuvers -- Steering

    • Holding the upper half of the wheel can result in excessive steering, air bag injuries, and upper body fatigue

    • Hands located on lower half of the

    • wheel offers:

    • Relaxed, balanced control

    • Reduces unwanted steering wheel movement

    • Improves stability by lowering the body’s center of gravity


    Virginia driver education

    Hand-to-Hand/Push-Pull Steering

    Hand-to-Hand Steering/Push-Pull

    Right Turn

    Left Hand Pushes Up from 8 to 11

    Right Turn

    Right Hand Pulls Down from 1 to 4


    Virginia driver education

    Hand-Over-Hand Steering

    Used at Speeds below 15 mph

    Used for slow, tight turns - Arms cross on the top 1/3 of the wheel until desired path of travel is reached

    Left Turn/left hand

    Left hand pulls down, then reaches up to about the 11 o’clock position and continues to pull 11-12 down to the left

    Left Turn/right hand

    Right Hand pushes up to about the 11 o’clock position


    Virginia driver education

    One-Hand Steering

    • Is used when:

    • Backing straight--hand holds top of wheel

    • Backing a trailer--hand holds bottom of wheel

    Backing Position


    Virginia driver education

    Covering the Accelerator

    • Used for a smooth transition from braking to accelerating

    • Allows the vehicle to coast which may speed up or slow down the vehicle

    • Permits the driver to be prepared for any needed acceleration


    Virginia driver education

    Foot Pedals

    Right foot pivots between brake and accelerator

    Brake

    Accelerator

    Dead Pedal

    Left foot “rests” on dead pedal


    Virginia driver education

    Acceleration Techniques

    • Progressive, Smooth Acceleration

      • Heel pivots foot from the brake to the accelerator

      • Gently apply pressure to the accelerator pedal to gradually increase speed to minimize backward pitch and maintain vehicle balance


    Virginia driver education

    Acceleration Techniques (cont)

    • 2. Thrust Acceleration

      • Typically used when passing or merging into higher speed traffic

      • Greater pressure is applied to accelerator pedal to rapidly increase speed without losing tire traction


    Virginia driver education

    Braking Techniques

    Smooth braking technique:

    • Is a trait of a skilled driver

    • Saves wear and tear on the brake system and tires


    Virginia driver education

    Methods to Reduce Speed

    Release the Accelerator

    • Most frequently used method to slow vehicle speed

    • Gradually reduce pedal pressure to avoid abrupt changes in speed


    Virginia driver education

    Methods to Reduce Speed

    2.Controlled Braking - When releasing the accelerator is not enough

    • Check the rear view mirror

    • Release accelerator and apply smooth, steady pressure on the brake pedal

    • For a smooth STOP, gently ease off the brake a few seconds before stopping to reduce the vehicle’s weight shift so the car does not pitch forward then backward during the final phase of stopping


    Virginia driver education

    Methods to Reduce Speed (cont)

    3.Threshold Braking in an Emergency

    Slows the vehicle as quickly as possible without locking brakes or losing traction

    • Release accelerator while checking traffic behind

    • Exert forceful pressure on brake pedal and you will feel the vehicle weight shift forward

    • If you feel the wheels begin to slide, ease the pressure on brake pedal so the tires can begin rotating again


    Virginia driver education

    Methods to Reduce Speed (cont.)

    4.Trail Braking – Used for Sharp Turns

    Occurs at the transition point where you slightly reduce pressure on the brake pedal to allow the vehicle to begin to regain speed before applying the accelerator


    Virginia driver education

    Trail Braking

    1. Use controlled braking prior to reaching the curve

    2. Begin easing off brake, and trail brake with very light pressure until halfway through the turn,

    3. Accelerate out of the turn


    Anti lock braking system abs

    Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS)

    ABS allows maximum stopping force without locking up the brakes (skidding)

    If standard brakes are applied too hard, the wheels "lock" or skid, and you lose steering control.


    Virginia driver education

    Anti-Lock Braking System (cont)

    If steering control is lost, the vehicle skids in a straight line wherever it is going

    ABS is an anti-lock/anti-skid brake system that allows the driver to steer during hard braking


    Virginia driver education

    Anti-Lock Braking System (cont.)

    • The ABS warning will come on when there is a problem with either the ABS brake system, normal brake system, or the brake fluid is low in the master cylinder or the ABS brake system

    • To find out if a vehicle is equipped with ABS, turn on the ignition and check the instrument panel for the ABS indicator light


    Virginia driver education

    Practice Activating ABS

    • In a parking lot, go 20-25 mph and execute an emergency stop to engage ABS

    • Keep your foot firmly on the brake even when you feel the brake pulsate and/or hear noise

    • This computerized pumping action can pump the brakes up to 15 times per second


    Virginia driver education

    Myths about ABS

    • There are fewer fatal crashes for cars equipped with ABS

      False, some drivers panic and/or release the brake when it pulses

    • Don’t use ABS brakes on a slippery surface

    • False, ABS shortens stopping distance and improves control on a slippery roads


    Virginia driver education

    Maintaining Vehicle Balance

    • Vehicle balance is the distribution of the weight of the vehicle on the tires

    • Optimum balance is reached when the vehicle is not moving or is moving in a straight direction at a constant speed

    • As soon as the vehicle accelerates, brakes, or turns, the balance is changed and the weight transfer changes the size of the tire patches


    Virginia driver education

    Gravity

    The natural force that pulls all things to Earth

    • Throw a ball into the air and what happens?

    • Gravity gives objects their ___________gravity

    • The center of gravity is where a body’s mass is ___________


    Virginia driver education

    Energy of Motion = Speed x Mass

    The white truck and the dump truck are going the same speed

    Which vehicle has more energy of motion?

    Why?


    Virginia driver education

    Effect Of Speed And Weight

    • The kinetic energy of a 4,000 pound vehicle traveling at 100 mph is equal to 1.36 million foot pounds – enough to lift a 175 pound man 1.5 miles!

    • To stop a vehicle going 60 mph would generate approximately enough heat to boil one-half gallon of water!


    Virginia driver education

    Inertia

    • Inertia wants to keep these parked vehicles at rest

    • Inertia also wants to keep these moving vehicles moving


    Virginia driver education

    Inertia(cont.)

    When driving through this curve, inertia creates the sensation that you are being pulled toward the outside of the curve

    Why?

    Because you are traveling in a straight line, and inertia wants to keep you going in a straight line


    Virginia driver education

    Momentum = Mass x Velocity

    • Momentum is inertia in motion

    • Momentum is the product of speed and weight

    A small truck filled with potatoes traveling at 20mph has more momentum that a 3,000 lb car traveling at the same speed

    As momentum increases so does the potential for damage in a collision


    Virginia driver education

    Pitch, Roll, and Yaw

    Pitch, Roll, and Yaw are the three axes running through a vehicle’s center of gravity

    Yaw

    Pitch

    Roll


    Virginia driver education

    Vehicle Pitch

    • Vehicle’s weight shifts backward or forward

    Forward Pitch

    Changing Vehicle Load from Rear to Front

    Backward Pitch:

    Changing Vehicle Load from Front to Rear

    • Accelerating

    • Releasing the brake

    • Releasing the accelerator

    • Braking


    Virginia driver education

    Vehicle Roll

    • Roll: Vehicle’s weight shifts to the tires located on one side of the vehicle

    Which direction is this driver steering to cause this weight shift? What causes a vehicle roll over?


    Virginia driver education

    Vehicle Yaw

    • Yaw: Fishtailing

    No Yaw

    Yaw

    • Vehicle’s rear tires lose traction and weight shifts to one side while opposite rear wheel moves toward front of vehicle


    Virginia driver education

    Steering For Balance And Control

    • Sit at a safe distance from the wheel

    • Use a balanced hand position

    • As speed increases, steering input is reduced for turns and other maneuvers

    Photo courtesy of ADTSEA


    Virginia driver education

    Changes in Speed Affects

    Balance and Control

    • Pushing or releasing the accelerator pedal is the primary method to adjust the speed of a vehicle

    • Changes in speed causes weight shifts to front or rear tires

    • Increases in speed with steering adjustments causes significant shifts in the vehicle’s weight


    Virginia driver education

    Braking Affects Balance and Control

    How does braking affect balance and control in a front or rear-wheel drive vehicle?


    Virginia driver education

    Effect of Hard Braking and Steering

    Load Decreasing

    • Applying hard braking causes weight to shift sharply to the front tires

    • If the weight shift exceeds available traction, the tires will skid and steering control is lost (under steer)

    Load Increasing


    Virginia driver education

    Vehicle Suspension System

    • Helps to smooth out weight transfers

    • Helps keep all four wheels on the ground

    • Helps keep the vehicle level


    Virginia driver education

    Steering and Balance

    Accelerating, braking, or steering shifts the vehicle’s weight from tire to tire and affects vehicle balance and control

    Describe the driver’s action and how is it affecting this vehicle’s balance?


    Virginia driver education

    Maintaining Vehicle Balance

    Describe the driving maneuvers that create these tire footprints


    Virginia driver education

    Maintaining Vehicle Balance (cont.)

    Describe the driving maneuvers that create these tire footprints


    Virginia driver education

    Vehicle Load

    Vehicle load capacity includes the combined weight of people, liquids and cargo that the vehicle is designed to safely handle


    Virginia driver education

    Effect of Load On Vehicle Balance

    What could occur if the driver of this vehicle made a quick steering maneuver?

    Photo courtesy of AAA Foundation


    Virginia driver education

    Vehicle Over Load

    • Operating a vehicle above the Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) compromises safety

    • Frame, suspension, brakes and tires are not designed for weights above the rating the manufacturer has set


    Virginia driver education

    Standard Vehicle Reference Points

    LEFT Reference Point

    3 feet from line or median

    6 inches from line or median

    • Relates a part of the vehicle to some part of the roadway

    • Know your vehicle placement within a lane at all times

    • Maneuver in confined places


    Virginia driver education

    Standard Vehicle Reference Points

    RIGHT Reference Point

    6 inches from line or curb

    3 feet from line or curb

    • Relates a part of the vehicle to some part of the roadway

    • Know your vehicle placement within a lane at all times

    • Maneuver in confined places


    Virginia driver education

    Standard Vehicle Reference Points

    Left Side Reference (3-6 Inches)

    When you look at the curb, pavement line, or edge of the road, it appears to line up about one foot in from the left edge of the hood


    Virginia driver education

    Standard Vehicle Reference Points

    Left-Side Reference Point

    • Used for:

    • Lane Position 2

    • Preparing for a left turn

    • Determining position for parking on the left side of a one-way street (3-6 inches from the curb or line)


    Virginia driver education

    Standard Vehicle Reference Points

    Right Side Reference Point

    Your vehicle is 3-6 inches from the curb, pavement line or edge of the road when the line appears near the center of the hood


    Virginia driver education

    Standard Vehicle Reference Points

    Right Side Reference Points

    • Are Used:

    • To know where the curb or line is located

    • For Lane Position 3

    • For parking


    Virginia driver education

    Standard Vehicle Reference Points

    To Position Vehicle Three Feet Away

    When you look at the curb, pavement, or edge of the road, it appears to line up with the middle of the right- half of the hood


    Virginia driver education

    Standard Vehicle Reference Points

    Right Side -- Three Feet Away

    • To position for a right turn or for

    • Lane Position 1


    Virginia driver education

    Standard Vehicle Reference Points

    Front Limitation

    To position 3-6 inches from the line in front of your bumper, stop when your line of sight runs under the side view mirror to curb in front

    Reference point

    Line of sight

    Reference Point


    Virginia driver education

    Standard Vehicle Reference Points

    Front Limitation

    You will need to know where the front bumper of your vehicle is when you are:

    • At intersections

    • At a stopped position

    • When parking

    • At a crosswalk

    STOP LINE


    Virginia driver education

    Standard Vehicle Reference Points

    Front Limitation

    When you look at the curb line it appears to line up with the side view mirror


    Virginia driver education

    Standard Vehicle Reference Points

    Rear Limitations

    LEFT

    When you look back over your left shoulder, the curb or line appears to be in the middle of the left rear window

    RIGHT

    When you look back over your right shoulder, the curb or line appears to be near the rear window corner


    Virginia driver education

    Standard Vehicle Reference Points

    Rear Limitations – How They are Used

    LEFT

    When backing to know where your rear bumper is

    RIGHT

    When backing around a corner, it’s the pivot point for turning, such as backing into a perpendicular parking space


  • Login