Towards a benchmark for the evaluation of ld expressiveness and suitability
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Towards a Benchmark for the Evaluation of LD Expressiveness and Suitability. Manuel Caeiro Rodríguez E-mail: [email protected] Goals. General goal: Enhance the modelling support of E ducational M odelling L anguages ( EMLs ) focusing mainly on Collaborative Learning

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Towards a Benchmark for the Evaluation of LD Expressiveness and Suitability

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Towards a benchmark for the evaluation of ld expressiveness and suitability

Towards a Benchmark for the Evaluation of LD Expressiveness and Suitability

Manuel Caeiro Rodríguez

E-mail: [email protected]


Goals

Goals

  • General goal: Enhance the modelling support of Educational Modelling Languages (EMLs) focusing mainly on Collaborative Learning

  • Particular goal: Obtain an evaluation benchmark of EMLs’ Expressivenessand Suitability

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What is an eml

What is an EML?

  • The purpose of EMLs is to support the modelling of learning practices (e.g. a course, a lesson, a lab practice, a workshop, etc.) in a generic way.

  • CEN/ISSS Workshop on Learning Technologies:

An EML is a semantic information model and binding describing the content and process within a unit of learning from a pedagogical perspective in order to support reuse and interoperability

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Evaluation criterions

Evaluation Criterions

  • Expressiveness

  • Suitability

    • Final LD users: Application developers

    • Specific purposes: Reusability and Interoperability

Capacity to denote the models in a domain

Quality of having the properties that are right for a specific purpose

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Development approach

Development Approach

  • Focused on the coordination of the entities involved not on pedagogical or technological issues

  • Approach: problem decomposition

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Evaluation methodology

Evaluation Methodology

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Perspectives

Perspectives

  • Perspectives in Workflow:

    • Process

    • Information

    • Resource

    • Organizational

  • Perspectives in Groupware:

    • Communication

    • Cooperation

    • Collaboration

    • Awareness

A modelling feature that involves a certain purpose and that can be analyzed independently

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Patterns

Patterns

An abstraction that is frequently repeated in a modelling domain

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Activity theory framework

Subject

Goal

Object

Rules

Division of Labour

Community

Activity Theory Framework

Environment

ACTIVITY

Activity Expanded Mediational Model

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The functional perspective

The Functional Perspective

  • What has to be done?

  • Goal breakdown and decomposition of activities into sub-activities.

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Functional patterns

Functional Patterns

  • Goal Featuring Patterns

    • Textual description, Mandatory task, Optional task, Grade, Input artefact task, Output artefact task, etc.

  • Composition Patterns

    • Task decomposition, Manual decomposition, Conditional decomposition, etc.

  • Multiple Instance Patterns

    • Learner task, Support task, Work task, etc.

  • Relationship Patterns

    • Complementary task, Antagonist task, etc.

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The resource perspective

What resources are intended to do it?

Learners, teachers, software agents, equipment, etc.

The Resource Perspective

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Resource patterns

Resource Patterns

  • Resource featuring Patterns

    • Learner profile, Portfolio, Group structure, etc.

  • Role Enrolment Patterns

    • Conditioned, Capacity-based, Manual, etc.

  • Resource Assignment Patterns

    • Direct, Role-based, Manual, Familiar, Separation of duties, Conditioned, etc.

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The information perspective

What information is available?

The artefacts that can be used.

The Information Perspective

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Information patterns

Information Patterns

  • Data Visibility Patterns

    • Activity data, Block data, Multiple instance data, etc.

  • Data Interaction Patterns

    • Internal Interaction, Compound task to decomposed tasks, to multiple instances, etc.

  • Data Transfer Patterns

    • Transfer by value, Transfer by reference, Copy, Transfer with block, Data transformation, Synchronization, etc.

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The operational perspective

What operations are available?

The applications and services that can be used.

The Operational Perspective

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Operational patterns

Operational Patterns

  • Operational Featuring Patterns

    • Textual description, Ontology-based, Instance, etc.

  • Invocation Patterns

    • Request, Request-response, Solicit-response, etc.

  • Monitoring Patterns

    • Role-based, Filtered, etc.

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The organizational perspective

What organization is involved?

Roles, Groups, Functional Units, Organizational Units, etc.

The Organizational Perspective

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Organizational patterns

Organizational Patterns

  • Structure Patterns

    • Organisational position, Organisational unit, Aggregations, etc.

  • Relationship Patterns

    • Delegation, Priority, etc.

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The process perspective

When does it have to be done?

The order in which activities can be performed.

The Process Perspective

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Process patterns

Process Patterns

  • Branching and Synchronizing Patterns

    • Sequence, Parallel division, Synchronization, Exclusive choice, Multiple election, Discriminator, etc.

  • Structural Patterns

    • Arbitrary cycles, Implicit termination, etc.

  • State-based Patterns

    • Delayed election, Milestone, etc.

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The temporal perspective

At which moment does it have to be done?

The time in which activities can be performed.

The Temporal Perspective

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Temporal patterns

Temporal Patterns

  • Synchronisation

    • A starts B, A finishes B, A before B, etc.

  • Scheduling

    • Deadline, Start point, etc.

  • Allocation

    • Maximum, Minimum, Average, etc.

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The authorization perspective

What roles are allowed to do?

Permissions, visibility, etc.

The Authorization Perspective

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Authorization patterns

Authorization Patterns

  • Permission Featuring Patterns

    • Artefact, Application & services, Class, Environment, Activity, etc.

  • Permission Assignment Patterns

    • Static, Manual, Conditioned, etc.

  • Permission Owner Patterns

    • Role, Application or Service, Policy, etc.

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The awareness perspective

What roles need to know?

Notifications, monitoring, etc.

The Awareness Perspective

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Awareness patterns

Awareness Patterns

  • Event Source Featuring Patterns

    • Role-presence, Role-actions, Environment, Class, etc.

  • Processing Patterns

    • Filter, Conjunction, Sequence, Counter, Composition, Storage, etc.

  • Event Sink Featuring Patterns

    • Role, Resource assigned to task, Application or Service, etc.

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The interaction perspective

What interactions are intended to be produced?

The control and management of the interaction in the activity.

The Interaction Perspective

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Interaction patterns

Interaction Patterns

  • Session Control Patterns

    • Automatic, Manual, Conditioned, etc.

  • Membership Control Patterns

    • Guest list, Minimum participants, etc.

  • Conversation Control Patterns

    • Automatic response, Typed response, etc.

  • Version Control Patterns

    • Operation-based, Role-based, etc.

  • Time Stamp Patterns

    • Periodic, Operation-based, etc.

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The causal perspective

Why to do it?

Metadata, learning goals, pre-requisites, etc.

The Causal Perspective

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Summary

Summary

  • 10+1 perspectives

  • 200 + patterns, but we are refining them

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Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Relationship with other EML evaluation proposals: not based on complete unit of learning modelling.

  • Next step: to provide a meta-model that enable the development of applications with truly reusability and interoperability properties.

  • Final goal: that teachers can perform the same things in a virtual environment that in their conventional classrooms.

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Thanks

Thanks!

Manuel Caeiro Rodríguez

E-mail: [email protected]


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