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The Endocrine System سيستم اندوکرين (دستگاه هورمون ها). EO 003.01 Part 12. Lesson Overview نکات آموزشى. Insert Dari. Function of the Endocrine System Function of Hormones Anatomy of the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands Control of Hormone Release Disorders of the Endocrine System

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The endocrine system
The Endocrine Systemسيستم اندوکرين (دستگاه هورمون ها)

EO 003.01 Part 12


Lesson overview
Lesson Overviewنکات آموزشى

Insert Dari

  • Function of the Endocrine System

  • Function of Hormones

  • Anatomy of the Endocrine System

  • Endocrine Glands

  • Control of Hormone Release

  • Disorders of the Endocrine System

  • In-class Assignment


Function of the endocrine system insert dari
Function of the Endocrine System (Insert Dari)

Insert Dari

  • A system of glands that secrete hormones into the blood stream in order to maintain balance in the body.

  • A hormone is a chemical released by a gland, or an organ in one part of the body that affects another part of the body.


The endocrine system1
The Endocrine Systemسيستم اندوکرين

  • سيستم هورمون ها و اعصاب باهم يکجا کار ميکنند

  • سيستم اندوکرين

    • هورمون هاى آزادشده در جريان خون به تمام بدن منتشر ميشوند

    • نتايج ممکن است ساعت ها طول بکشد، اما دير دوام ميکند

  • سيستم عصبى

    • بخش هاى معين آن، هورمون ها را به جريان خون آزاد ميسازند

    • باقيمانده انتقال دهنده هاى عصبى را آزاد ساخته، سبب تحريک يا مانع حجرات عصبى، عضلى و غدوات ميشود

    • نتيجه در هزارم ثانيه و تأثير کوتاه مدت

  • Endocrine and nervous systems work together

  • Endocrine system

    • hormones released into the bloodstream travel throughout the body

    • results may take hours, but last longer

  • Nervous system

    • certain parts release hormones into blood

    • rest release neurotransmitters to excite or inhibit nerve, muscle & gland cells

    • results in milliseconds, brief duration of effects


General functions of hormones
General Functions of Hormonesوظايف عمومى هورمون ها

  • Help regulate:

    • Metabolism

    • contraction of cardiac & smooth muscle

    • glandular secretion

    • some immune functions

  • Growth & development

  • Reproduction

  • کمک در تنظيم:

    • ميتابوليزم (استقلاب)

    • انقباض عضلات قلبى و صاف

    • ترشحات غدوى

    • بعضى از وظايف دفاعى

  • رشد و انکشاف

  • تناسل (توليد مثل)


Hormone receptors
Hormone Receptors

  • Hormones only affect target cells with specific membrane proteins called receptors


آخذه هاى هورمونى

  • هورمون ها تنها بر آن حجرات هدف مؤثر دارند که داراى غشاى پروتئينى مخصوص بنام آخذه ها، ميباشند




Endocrine glands defined
Endocrine Glands Definedتعريف غدوات اندوکرين

  • غدوات داراى ترشحات خارجى (ايکزوکرين)

    • توليدات خود را به قنوات (کانال هاى کوچکى) ترشح ميکنند که به حفره ها يا سطح بدن خالى ميشوند

    • عرق، چربى، مخاط، و غدوات هاضمه

  • غدوات اندوکرين (داراى ترشحات داخلى)

    • توليدات خود (هورمون ها) را به جريان خون ترشح ميکنند

    • هيپوفيز، تيروئيد، پاراتيروئيد، ادرينال، ايپى فيز و اعضاى ديگر بحيث وظيفۀ ثانوى، هورمون ها را ترشح ميکنند

      • هايپوتلموس، تيموس، پانقراس، تخمدان ها، بيضه ها، کليه ها (گرده ها)، معده، جگر (کبد)، امعاى کوچک، جلد، قلب و پلاسنتا

  • Exocrine glands

    • secrete products into ducts which empty into body cavities or body surface

    • sweat, oil, mucous, & digestive glands

  • Endocrine glands

    • secrete products (hormones) into bloodstream

    • pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal

    • other organs secrete hormones as a 2nd function

      • hypothalamus, thymus, pancreas, ovaries, testes, kidneys, stomach, liver, small intestine, skin, heart & placenta


Hypothalamus and pituitary gland
Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland

هايپوتلموس و غدۀ نخاميه

  • هردو غدۀ اندوکرين عمده اند، چون هورمون هاى شان، غدوات اندوکرين ديگر را کنترول ميکنند

  • Both are master endocrine glands since their hormones control other endocrine glands. Pituitary gland also secretes hormones that control growth.

(Insert Dari)

Thyroid

Insert Dari

Produces thyroid hormones which are responsible for our metabolic rate.

(Insert Dari)

Parathyroid

Produces hormones which control calcium absorption.

Insert Dari

(Insert Dari)

Alimentary Tract

(Stomach, Duodenum, Liver, Kidney and Pancreas)

Insert Dari

Secrete hormones that aid in digestion/absorption of various nutrients (i.e. insulin which allows cells to absorb sugar)


(Insert Dari)

Adrenal Glands

Insert Dari

  • Secrete hormones that regulate kidney function as well as releasing hormones in response to stress.

(Insert Dari)

Reproductive Glands

  • بيضه ها (خصيه ها)

    • تيستيستيرون توليد ميکند

    • توليد سپرم و خصوصيات جنسى ثانوى را تنظيم ميکند

  • تخمدان ها

    • ايستروجن، پروجسترون، ريلکسين و انهيبين

    • دورۀ قاعدگى را تنظيم نموده حمل را نگهداشته و غدوات سينه را براى شيردادن آماده ميسازد

(Testes, Ovaries)

Testes – produce testosterone, which promotes development of male sex characteristics (i.e. beard growth).

Ovaries – produce estrogen, which promotes the development of female sex characteristics and controls the menstrual cycle and prepares for milk production.


Miscellaneous hormones
Miscellaneous Hormones . هورمون هاى مختلفۀ آيکوسانوئيد ها

  • Local hormones released by all body cells

  • Leukotrienes influence WBCs & inflammation

  • Prostaglandins alter

    • smooth muscle contraction, glandular secretion, blood flow, platelet function, nerve transmission, metabolism etc.

  • هورمون هاى محلى توسط تمام حجرات بدن آزاد ميشوند

  • ليوکوترائينز بر کرويات سفيد خون و التهاب نفوذ دارد

  • پروستاگلندين ها تغير ميدهد

    • انقباض عضلات ساده، ترشحات غدوات، جريان خون، وظايف صفحات دموى، انتقال عصبى، استقلاب و غيره


Control of hormone secretion
Control of Hormone Secretion کنترول ترشحات هورمون

  • تنظيم شده توسط علامات (سيگنال هاى) سيستم عصبى، تغيرات کيمياوى در خون و يا هورمون هاى ديگر

  • کنترول عکس العمل منفى (بصورت بسيار عا م)

    • تقليل/ازدياد سطح خون معکوس شده است

  • کنترول عکس العمل مثبت

    • تغيرات توليد شده توسط هورمون ها، سبب آزاد شدن هورمون هاى بيشتر ميشود

  • تشوشات يا اختلالات شامل کمبود و يا هم ازدياد ترشح هورمون ميباشد

  • Regulated by signals from nervous system, chemical changes in the blood or by other hormones

  • Negative feedback control (most common)

    • decrease/increase in blood level is reversed

  • Positive feedback control

    • the change produced by the hormone causes more hormone to be released

  • Disorders involve either hyposecretion or hypersecretion of a hormone


Disorders of the endocrine system insert dari
Disorders of the Endocrine System(Insert Dari)

  • Dwarfism

  • Thyroid Disorders

  • Diabetes

  • Insert Dari


Pituitary gland disorders
Pituitary Gland Disorders تشوشات غدۀ نخاميه

  • Hypo secretion during childhood = pituitary dwarfism (proportional, childlike body)

  • Hyper secretion during childhood = giantism

    • very tall, normal proportions

  • Hyper secretion as adult = acromegaly

    • growth of hands, feet, facial features & thickening of skin

  • کمبود ترشحات در دوران کودکى = کوتاه قدى نخامى (دوارفيزم)

  • ازدياد ترشحات دوران کودکى = غول پيکرى (افزايش غير عادى رشد)

    • خيلى طويل، تناسب نورمال

  • ازدياد ترشحات در کاهلان = اکروميگالى (بزرگى غير عادى روى و دست ها و پاها)

    • رشد دست ها، پاها، روى و ضخيم شدن جلد


Acromegaly

Insert Dari

Insert Dari

Insert Dari


Thyroid gland disorders
Thyroid Gland Disordersتشوشات غدۀ تيروئيد

  • Hypothyroidism in adult produces sensitivity to cold, low body temp weight gain & mental dullness

  • Hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease)

    • weight loss, nervousness, tremor & exophthalmos (edema behind eyes)

  • Goiter = enlarged thyroid (dietary)

  • کم شدن فعاليت غدۀ تيروئيد (درقيه) در بالغان سبب حساسيت به مقابل سردى، کم شدن درجۀ حرارت، زياد شدن وزن و کندى دماغى ميشود

  • زيادشدن فعاليت غدۀ تيروئيد

    • باختن وزن، عصبى بودن، لرزه و برامدن چشم ها (پنديدگى عقب چشم ها)

  • جاغور = کلان شدن غدۀ تيروئيد (مربوط به غذا)


Insert Dari

Insert Dari

Insert Dari


Diabetes mellitus hyperinsulinism
Diabetes Mellitus & Hyperinsulinismمرض قند و ازدياد انسولين

  • Diabetes mellitus marked by hyperglycemia (high blood suger)

    • excessive urine production

    • excessive thirst

    • excessive eating

  • Type I----deficiency of insulin (under 20)

  • Type II---adult onset

    • cells may be less sensitive to hormone

  • مرض قند، با تشخيص ازدياد مقدار قند خون

    • توليد ادرار بيش از حد

    • تشنگى بيش از حد

    • گرسنگى بيش از حد

  • نوع اول ---فقدان انسولين (پائينتر از ٢٠ سال)

  • نوع دوم ---وقوع در بالغان

    • حجرات شايد بمقابل هورمون کمتر حساس باشند


Questions insert dari
Questions? (Insert Dari)


In class assignment insert dari
In-class Assignment(Insert Dari)


1 what is the function of the endocrine system insert dari
1. What is the function of the Endocrine System? (Insert Dari)

  • To secrete hormones that maintain balance in the body.

  • Allow for movement

  • Absorb nutrients

  • Provide Oxygen to the blood.

Insert Dari


1 answer what is the function of the endocrine system insert dari
1. Answer: What is the function of the Endocrine System? (Insert Dari)

  • To secrete hormones that maintain balance in the body.

  • Allow for movement

  • Absorb nutrients

  • Provide Oxygen to the blood.

Insert Dari


2 which of the following statements are correct insert dari
2. Which of the following statements are correct? (Insert Dari)

  • The endocrine and nervous system do NOT work together.

  • The nervous system does NOT cause the release of hormones.

  • Hormones released by the endocrine system achieve results in milliseconds

  • Hormones are released from special glands called endocrine glands.

Insert Dari


2 which of the following statements are correct insert dari1
2. Which of the following statements are correct? (Insert Dari)

  • The endocrine and nervous system do NOT work together.

  • The nervous system does NOT cause the release of hormones.

  • Hormones released by the endocrine system achieve results in milliseconds

  • Hormones are released from special glands called endocrine glands.

Insert Dari


3 which of the following is not a function of hormones insert dari
3. Which of the following is not a function of hormones? (Insert Dari)

  • Regulate metabolism

  • Regulate growth and development

  • Reproduction

  • All the above are functions of hormones

Insert Dari


3 which of the following is not a function of hormones insert dari1
3. Which of the following is not a function of hormones? (Insert Dari)

  • Regulate metabolism

  • Regulate growth and development

  • Reproduction

  • All the above are functions of hormones

Insert Dari


4 match the gland with its function insert dari
4. Match the gland with its function(Insert Dari)

  • Hypothalamus

  • Ovaries

  • Adrenal gland

  • Testes

  • Pituitary gland

  • Growth and development

  • Female sex hormones and reproduction

  • Master gland

  • Kidney function and stress hormones

  • Male sex hormones and reproduction

Insert Dari


4 answer match the gland with its function insert dari
4. Answer: Match the gland with its function(Insert Dari)

  • Hypothalamus (3) Master Gland

  • Ovaries (2) Female sex hormones and reproduction

  • Adrenal gland (4) kidney function and stress hormones

  • Testes (5) male sex hormones and reproduction

  • Pituitary gland (1) Growth and development

Insert Dari


5 fill in the blank with hyper or hypo insert dari
5. Fill in the blank with hyper or hypo(Insert Dari)

  • A) Dwarfism is caused by _____secretion by the pituitary gland.

  • B) Diabetes is caused by _____secretion of insulin.

  • C) _____thyroidism is characterized by weight gain, mental dullness and sensitivity to the cold.

  • D) ______thyroidism is characterized by weight loss, sometimes bulging eyes and tremor.

Insert Dari


5 fill in the blank with hyper or hypo insert dari1
5. Fill in the blank with hyper or hypo(Insert Dari)

  • A) Dwarfism is caused by hypo secretion by the pituitary gland.

  • B) Diabetes is caused by hypo secretion of insulin.

  • C) Hypothyroidism is characterized by weight gain, mental dullness and sensitivity to the cold.

  • D) Hyperthyroidism is characterized by weight loss, sometimes bulging eyes and tremor.

Insert Dari


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