Peptides to proteins
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Peptides to Proteins. PRESENTING. What are proteins?. The World of PROTEINS. Why are proteins important?. How are proteins made?. How do proteins fold?. What are PROTEINS?. Proteins are large, complex molecules that serve diverse functional and structural roles within cells. .

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Peptides to Proteins

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Peptides to proteins

Peptides to Proteins


Peptides to proteins

PRESENTING.......

  • What are proteins?

The World of PROTEINS

  • Why are proteins important?

  • How are proteins made?

  • How do proteins fold?


What are proteins

What are PROTEINS?

Proteins are large, complex molecules that serve diverse functional and structural roles within cells.


Proteins are the action force in the cell

Proteins are the ACTION FORCE in the cell.


Peptides to proteins

Enzyme

Defense

Protease

Antibody

Fights Viruses

Degrades Protein

Motion

O

Actin

Transport

Contracts Muscle Fibers

Hemoglobin

Carries O2

Regulation

Insulin

2

Controls Blood Glucose

Support

Keratin

Forms Hair and Nails

Proteins can be functionally classified.


Peptides to proteins

How are Proteins Made?


Peptides to proteins

Proteins are chains of amino acids.

O

OH

C

N

H

N

H

H

H

Short chains of amino acids are called peptides.

Proteins are polypeptide molecules that contain many peptide subunits.


Amino acids have an amino group carboxyl group r group and hydrogen

R

COOH

C

NH2

H

Amino Acid 1

Amino acids have an amino group, carboxyl group, R group and hydrogen.


Each amino acid has unique chemical properties

Alanine

Asparagine

Aspartate

Cysteine

Arginine

Glycine

Glutamate

Histidine

Glutamine

Lysine

Proline

Leucine

Isoleucine

Methionine

Serine

Phenylalanine

Valine

Threonine

Tryptophan

Tyrosine

Each amino acid has unique chemical properties.


Peptide bonds form by dehydration synthesis

H2O

Peptide bonds form by dehydration synthesis

R

R

H

N

C

H

COOH

OH

C

C

O

NH2

H

Amino Acid 2

H

Amino Acid 1


Peptides to proteins

R

R

C

COOH

Peptide Bond

C

NH2

H

Amino Acid 2

H

Amino Acid 1


Peptides to proteins

Gene

Empty tRNA

Trp

tRNA

Ribosome

Met

Trp

Ala

Ala

Met

Met

Met

Ala

tRNA

tRNA

Ribonucleotides

A

G

C

U

Codon 1

A

U

G

=

Methionine

Empty tRNA

Large Subunit

Codon 2

G

C

C

=

Alanine

Codon 3

U

G

G

=

Tryptophan

TRANSLATION

Small Subunit

Codon 4

U

A

G

=

Stop

is the synthesis of proteins in the cell.

3’

Nucleus

Messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA)

Amino Acid-transfer RNA

5’

U

G

G

U

A

G

A

U

G

G

C

C

Cytoplasm


Peptides to proteins

How do Proteins Fold?


Peptides to proteins

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Quaternary

There are 4 basic

Levels of Protein Structure


Peptides to proteins

M

P

C

V

Y

A

L

I

T

N

Q

P

G

S

F

D

H

K

R

E

The primary structure is the sequence of amino acids.


Peptides to proteins

The secondary structure is primarily composed of alpha helices and beta-pleated sheets.

Folding Back and Coiling

Primary Structure

Alpha Helix

Beta-Pleated Sheet


Peptides to proteins

The tertiary structure is the protein’s 3D shape.


Peptides to proteins

The quaternary structure is the assembly of folded subunits.


Proteins must reach their final shape to perform their vital functions

Proteins must reach their final shape to perform their vital functions

Improperly Folded

Properly Folded


Summary

Summary

  • Proteins are biological workhorses that carry out most of the functions within the cell.

  • Proteins are large biological molecules that serve diverse functional and structural roles within cells.

  • Proteins are synthesized during the translation process.


Summary cont d

Summary cont’d…

  • Proteins are composed of amino acids that are covalently linked by peptide bonds.

  • Proteins have four basic levels of structure. However, proteins must fold correctly in order to function properly.


T h e e n d

THEEND!


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