Evolution, dispersal of genetics and Fisher’s equation. Charles Darwin (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882). On the Origin of Species (1859) Many individuals of s species are destined to die before reaching reproduction age.
Experiments on Plant Hybridization, Gregor Mendel (1865, Proceedings of the Natural History Society)http://www.mendelweb.org/Mendel.html (original paper)
Mendel compared seven discrete traits:
Through experimentation, Mendel discovered that one inheritable trait would invariably be dominant to its recessive alternative. This model, later known as Mendelian inheritance or Mendelian genetics, provided an alternative to blending inheritance, which was the prevailing theory at the time. Unfortunately, Mendel's work received little attention from the scientific community and was largely forgotten. It was not until the early 20th century that Mendel's work was rediscovered and his ideas used to help form the modern synthesis.
Difference in the color of the seed albumen
Yellow (I) and green (i) cotyledons
Difference in the form of the ripe seeds
Round (R) and wrinkled (r) cotyledons
Difference in the color of the seed coat
Colored (A) and white (a) flowers
Difference in the color of the unripe pods
Green (Gp) or yellow (gp) pod wall
More general, the probabilities (frequencies) of allele A or a in a population can be p and q, where p+q=1. Then the probability of each genotype in F2 is
AA: p^2 Aa: 2pq aa: q^2
Hardy-Weinberg’s law: the frequency remain the same for each genotype
Wilhelm Weinberg(1862 — 1937)
G. H. Hardy
Different survival rate or fertility rate for the two genotypes could break Hardy-Weinberg’s law
Darwin-Wallace Medalis a medal awarded by the Linnean Society of London every 50 years, beginning in 1908, 50 years after the joint presentation by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace of two scientific papers - On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection - to the Linnean Society of London on 1 July 1858. It is awarded for "major advances in evolutionary biology"
(upper): dominant and advantageous, left: s=0.002, right: s=0.2
(lower): dominant and recessive, left: s=0.002, right: s=0.2