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Cognitive Engineering PSYC 530 Automation and Human Performance. Raja Parasuraman. Overview. Characteristics of Automation Human Performance in Automated Systems Designing for Effective Human-Automation Interaction. Automation: Definitions and Characteristics. Automation is Ubiquitous.

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Cognitive engineering psyc 530 automation and human performance l.jpg

Cognitive EngineeringPSYC 530Automation and Human Performance

Raja Parasuraman


Overview l.jpg

Overview

Characteristics of Automation

Human Performance in Automated Systems

Designing for Effective Human-Automation Interaction


Automation definitions and characteristics l.jpg

Automation: Definitions and Characteristics


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Automation is Ubiquitous

  • Aviation

  • Air traffic control

  • Ground and maritime transportation

  • Process control and manufacturing

  • Military command and control

  • Medicine and health care

  • Intelligent agents

  • Home automation

  • Robotics

  • Drug design/Molecular genetics


What is automation l.jpg

What is Automation?

“A machine or system that accomplishes (partially or fully) a function that was previously carried out (partially or fully) by a human operator”

Source: PARASURAMAN, R., & RILEY, V. (1997). Humans and

automation: Use, misuse, disuse, abuse. Human Factors.


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Advanced Automation: Boeing 777

EICAS

NAV

DISPLAY

PAPER!

PRIMARYFLGHT

DISPLAY


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Reasons for the March Towards More Automation

Cost

Safety?

Technical Capability

Human Factors?

X


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Grounding of the Cruise Ship Royal Majesty, Nantucket, 1995


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Grounding of the Cruise Ship Royal Majesty, Nantucket, 1995

  • Accident: Grounding of passenger ship on Rose and Crown shoal near Nantucket Island, MA

  • Losses: $2 million structural damage; $5 million lost revenue; no injuries or fatalities

  • Automation: Autopilot; Automatic Radar Plotting Aid (ARPA); Global Positioning System (GPS)


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Grounding of the Cruise Ship Royal Majesty, Nantucket, 1995


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Grounding of the Cruise Ship Royal Majesty, Nantucket, 1995

  • NTSB Probable Cause: Over-reliance on automated features of the integrated bridge system; management failure to ensure officers adequately trained in automated features

  • Human-Automation Issues: automation complacency; crew resource management; training


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NTSB Report Conclusions (Extracts)

  • …the GPS receiver antenna cable connection separated enough that the GPS switched to dead reckoning mode, and the autopilot….no longer corrected for the effects of wind, current or sea….

  • …the watch officers’ monitoring of the status of the vessel’s GPS was deficient throughout the voyage…

  • ….deliberate cross-checking between the GPS and the Loran-C to verify position…was not being performed….

  • ….all the watchstanding officers were overly reliant on the automated position display….and were, for all intents and purposes, sailing the map display instead of using navigation aids or lookout information


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Human Performance in Automated Systems


Human performance l.jpg

Human Performance

Cognitive Processes

Visual Attention

Mental Workload

Vigilance and Monitoring

Working Memory

Situation Awareness

Decision Making

Social Processes

Trust in Automation

Attitudes


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Levels of Automation

HIGH 10. The computer decides everything, acts autonomously, ignoring the human.

9. informs the human only if it, the computer, decides to

8. informs the human only if asked, or

7. executes automatically, then necessarily informs the human, and

6. allows the human a restricted time to veto before automatic execution, or

5. executes that suggestion if the human approves, or

4. suggests one alternative

3. narrows the selection down to a few, or

2. The computer offers a complete set of decision/action alternatives, or

LOW 1. The computer offers no assistance: human takes all decisions and actions.

Source: SHERIDAN, T. B. (1992). Telerobotics, Automation, and Supervisory

Control. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


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Human-Automation Interaction: Some Empirical Methods

  • Human-in-the-loop Simulation

  • Human Performance Modeling

  • Quantitative Models

  • Field Studies


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A Field Study?


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Automation and Human Performance

Automation can fundamentally change the nature of the cognitive demands and responsibilities of the human operators of system--often in ways that were unintended or unanticipated by designers


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Automation and Human Performance: Benefits

Improved precision of performance

Operational flexibility

Reduced mental workload

Enhanced safety (automated warning systems)


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Automation and Human Performance: Potential Costs

Unbalanced mental workload

Automation complacency

Loss of situation awareness

Mode error/confusion

Manual skill degradation

Degraded teamwork/communication


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Automation: The Double-Edged Sword

Automation often provides clear benefits

Automation can also lead to novel, unanticipated problems and performance costs

Which tasks should be automated and to what level for optimal control, performance, and safety?

Technologists: Automate tasks as fully as technically possible—the ‘technological imperative’

Human factors engineers: Automate to an extent that balances efficiency with safety and ensures a proper role for the human in the resulting system


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Automation Can But Does Not Always Reduce Mental Workload

“Clumsy Automation”—Increases mental workload during high task load, reduces it during low task load

“Cognitive Overhead”—Automation is difficult to engage, adjust, or turn off

Sources: WIENER, C. E. (1988). Cockpit automation. In E. L. Wiener & D. C. Nagel (Eds.) Human factors in aviation. San Diego: Academic Press.

KIRLIK, A (1993). Modeling strategic behavior in human-automation interaction:

Why an “aid” can (and should) go unused. Human Factors, 35.


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Effects of Level of Automation on Situation Awareness

Levels of SA

Level 1: Perception

Level 2: Comprehension

Level 3: Projection

Source: Endsley, M., & Kiris, E. (1995). The out-of-the-loop performance

Problem and level of control in automation. Human Factors, 37, 390-398.


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EFFECTS OF LEVEL OF AUTOMATION

ON OPERATOR SITUATION AWARENESS

100

90

SA LEVEL 2 (% Correct)

80

70

Manual

Decision

Support

Consensual

AI

Monitored

AI

Full

Automation

LEVEL OF AUTOMATION BEFORE AUTOMATION FAILURE


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Trust Affects Automation Usage

The goal is to achieve calibrated trust

that is matched to the situation

Over-trust (Complacency)—Inappropriate use and over-reliance on automation

Under-trust (Distrust)—Disuse or turning off of automation

Source: LEE, J., & MORAY, N. (1992). Trust, control strategies, and allocation of function

In human-machine systems. Ergonomics.

PARASURAMAN, R., MOLLOY, R., & SINGH, I. L. (1993). Performance

consequences of automation-induced "complacency." International Journal of Aviation

Psychology.


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Automation Trust and Complacency Study

24 Experienced General Aviation Pilots

2 Levels of Difficulty—Single and Multiple-Task

2 Levels of Automation (Manual, Automated)

Task: Carry out primary flight and fuel management tasks manually, monitor automated engine-systems task


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Multi-Attribute Task Battery (MAT)


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MANUAL

Human Operators Are Poor at Monitoring Automated Systems When They Are Simultaneously Engaged in Other Manual Tasks

AUTOMATED

100

Cost of

Automation

Complacency

80

DETECTION

RATE (%)

60

40

20

0

SINGLE-TASK

MULTI-TASK


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Designing for More Effective Human-Automation Interaction


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Make Automation State Indicators and Behaviors More Salient

Use Display Integration to Improve

the Observability of Automation Behaviors


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Engine Indicator and Crew

Alerting System (EICAS)

EPR

Detecting a

Malfunction

Requires Manual

Integration over

Several Engine

Parameters

N1

EGT


Slide32 l.jpg

N1

OP

N2

ET

N1

OP

N2

ET

N1

N1

N1

N1

OP

OP

OP

OP

N2

N2

N2

N2

ET

ET

ET

ET

NORMAL

WARNING

FAULT

Engine Monitoring and

Control System (EMACS)


Slide33 l.jpg

100

Cost of Automation

Complacency

MANUAL

80

Eliminated

AUTOMATED

60

DETECTION RATE (%)

40

20

0

Effects of Display Integration on Human-Automation Interaction

EICAS

(Non-Integrated)

EMACS

(Integrated)


Use of multi modality feedback to enhance human automation interaction l.jpg

Source: Sklar, A. & Sarter, N. (2000). Good vibrations: Tactile feedback in

support of human-automation coordination. Human Factors.

Use of Multi-Modality Feedback to Enhance Human-Automation Interaction

Glass Cockpit Simulator

Tactile Feedback System

Roll Mode Transition

Autothrottle Mode Transition


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DETECTION RATE OF UNCOMMANDED

AUTOMATION MODE TRANSITIONS (%)

100

Visual Only

Visual+Tactile

80

Tactile Only

60

40

MANUAL

w/ FD

DYNAMICAUTOPILOT


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Summary of Human Performance

  • Certain automation designs can lead to unbalanced mental workload, reduced situation awareness, and miscalibrated trust and complacency

  • The “irony of automation” (Bainbridge, 1983)—highly reliable but imperfect automation has a greater cost than less reliable automation when the automation fails

  • Some of these costs can be mitigated using integrated displays, multi-modality feedback, ecological interface design, and adaptive automation


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Evaluative Criteria: Human Performance

Mental models

Communication and coordination

Mental workload

Situation awareness

Trust and complacency

Cognitive skills

Teamwork


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Additional Evaluative Criteria

Production and Operating Costs

Automation Reliability

Costs of Decision/Action Consequences

Efficiency/Safety Tradeoffs

Ease of System Integration

Liability Issues


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TRADITIONAL APPROACH

Design

Development

Fielded System

Operations

Human Factors “Fixes”

Implementing Human Factors in Automation Design

HUMAN-MACHINE SYSTEMS APPROACH

Design

Development

Fielded System

Operations

Human Factors Science and Engineering


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Automation design should not consist of cleaning up the designers’ mess afterwards.


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