Analysis
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 51

Analysis PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 40 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Analysis. Description of Data. Stressors: Personal Buying House Death Child Care Illness Trauma. Things that are important Include number of interviews. Faith/God Family Career/Teaching Students Children Marriage Relationships Friends Money (1 interview). Sources of Support.

Download Presentation

Analysis

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Analysis

Analysis


Description of data

Description of Data


Analysis

Stressors: Personal

Buying House

Death

Child Care

Illness

Trauma


Things that are important include number of interviews

Things that are importantInclude number of interviews

  • Faith/God

  • Family

  • Career/Teaching

  • Students

  • Children

  • Marriage

  • Relationships

  • Friends

  • Money (1 interview)


Sources of support

Sources of Support


Coping mechanisms ako

Coping Mechanisms-Ako


Themes and concepts

Themes and Concepts

  • Teaching is an all encompassing profession

    • Teaching is life

    • Spillover from work into personal realm

      • Time and emotional energy


Relational themes

Relational Themes

  • More common for professional to spillover into personal

  • Married teachers tend to handle stress more efficiently than single teachers

  • Younger teachers tend to be more stressed by the professional demands of teaching

  • Second career teachers seemed to feel less stressed


The process

The Process…

  • Brainstorming: Themes, concepts, general impressions

  • Lists—Descriptive Themes—Relational Themes

  • Made Lists of common concepts

  • Discussed Descriptive Themes

  • Discussed Relational Themes

  • Talked about general questions (so what?)

  • Divide and conquer responsibilities


So what

So What???

  • Contemplating teaching as a career.

  • Why did they become teachers and how did that impact their stress level?

  • Things that are “important” are they consistent throughout the interview?


Research review

Research Review

February 24th, 2009

  • Reviewing Research Related to Key Concepts

  • Balance & Spillover: Mary Julia & Susan

  • Stress: Bethany

  • Coping Strategies: Ako


Balance

Balance?

  • Teachers often report difficulty in balancing their personal and professional lives (Burden 1982; Gu & Day, 2007)

  • Struggles in their personal lives often influenced their professional lives & vice versa

  • Differences in how this balance plays out over the course of their careers

    • Often more difficult in the beginning


Spillover

Spillover

  • Family Systems Theory (Cox & Payley, 1997)

  • “When experiences in the home or at work are brought by one individual into the other domain, affecting that individual’s performance of roles and experiences within the second domain” (Stevens, Kiger, & Riley 2006, pp. 426-427).

  • Can be positive or negative

  • More likely under conditions of stress & burnout (Appel & Kim-Appel, 2008)


Spillover balance

Spillover & Balance

  • Spillover: the greater the demand from work, the less likely an individual is to feel balanced (due in part to long demanding hours)

    • Especially when they miss personal events such as a spouse’s birthday party or a child’s sporting or school event.

  • (Keene & Quadagno, 2004)


Factors associated with teaching that increase the likelihood of spillover

Factors associated with Teaching that Increase the Likelihood of - Spillover

School Pressures

  • National Standards

  • Psychological Burdens

  • Having to teach Required Material

  • Lesson plans, grading, etc. often taken home

    (Gu & Day, 2007)

  • Family Pressures

    • Spouse

    • Children

    • Financial Difficulties


Factors associated with teaching that increase the likelihood of spillover1

Factors associated with Teaching that Increase the Likelihood of + Spillover

  • Supportive Leadership/

    Administration

  • Promotion

  • Desire to Teach

  • Positive experiences with Students

  • (Gu & Day, 2007)

  • Family Support

    • Loving Spouse


Gender differences

Gender Differences

For women

For Men

Job Characteristics were less relevant to their perceptions of Spillover

  • Satisfaction with Work

  • Job Flexibility

  • Related Significantly to perceptions of Spillover

* For both men and women, their perception of the amount of work-family spillover of their partner was associated significantly with their own perceptions of family cohesion.

(Stevens, Kiger, & Riley, 2006)


Gender differences1

Gender Differences

  • Literature suggests that mothers participating in the workforce often struggle with feelings of guilt because of inherent historically rooted values in the broader society.

  • “A good mother is a construct socially embedded within Western society and the image is typically further portrayed in the media with news media focusing on the negative effects of child care” (Guendouzi, 2006).

  • Whereas Western society views employment as a necessary condition for Fathers – in order to be a good father one must be an active participant in the workforce.


Factors relating to mothers and spillover

Factors Relating to Mothers and Spillover

  • A study conducted by Novak and Thommason suggests that:

    • accessibility (the well being of the child depends on how accessible the mother is)

    • happiness (happiness of the mother will affect happiness of the child)

    • separate spheres (mothers must be happy and fulfilled to benefit their children)

      are the most dominate positions that arise when women discuss motherhood (as cited in Guendouzi, 2006).


Gender differences2

Gender Differences

  • Literature suggests that, “when work is seen as interfering with the time and energy needed at home, working parents, especially working mothers, become dissatisfied with their jobs” (Grandey et al., 2005).

  • According to research, most employees expectations are based on a male model that presumes a nonworking spouse to manage a worker’s personal needs and children.

  • While both women and men must make personal adjustments to maintain their family responsibilities, research indicates that women spent more time conducting household chores and spend more time caring for children (Keene & Quadagno, 2004).


Analysis

Consequences of Spillover

  • Some studies suggest more positive benefits

    • increased economic resources,

    • improved self-esteem,

    • enhanced social integration

  • Some studies indicate that multiple role commitments lead to negative consequences such as

    • mental and physical exhaustion

    • STRESS!!!

      Keene, J.R., & Quadrangno, J. (2004).


Analysis

Stress:

“an unpleasant emotional state” (Rieg, Paquette, & Chen, 2007)

Other definitions discuss the physical, emotional, and mental responses to demands in our daily life (Brown & Nagel, 2007).

When one views a set of demands as outweighing the resources available for dealing with the demands then stress is created (O’Donnell, Lambert, & McCarthy, 2008).

Teacher Stress:

“a response syndrome of negative effects resulting from the teachers’ job” (Reig, et al 2007).

When teachers view the demands of their job as outweighing their resources they report feelings of stress (O’Donnell et al. 2008).

Literature Review:

STRESS


Stressors

Stressors

  • Stressors (elements that trigger feelings of Stress) include:

    • School climate: working relationships, material resources, students’ behavior, and parent/community involvement

    • Parent conflict, poor relationships with supervisors, student behavior, and self-efficacy

    • Pre-service teachers were more concerned with meeting the needs of ALL students, working with nontraditional family units, and utilizing their instructional time effectively.

    • Beginning teachers were stressed about the competitive pressure placed on them to be better than other districts, schools, or teachers

(Reig, Paquette, and Chen 2007) (Grayson & Alvarez, 2007)


Analysis

CARD (Classroom Demands and Classroom Resources); measure the factors that lead to teachers’ stress and/or burnout

Teachers’ perceptions of their demands and resources directly impact their level of stress. If their demands out- weighed their resources they showed higher levels of stress.

Poverty status: Teachers in low socio-economic communities reported higher levels of stress than teachers in high socio-economic communities.

Fall versus Spring: Teachers reported higher levels of stress during the spring term. The speculation was that there were more pressures regarding tests, accountability, and discipline later in the year.

(O’Donnell, Lambert, & McCarthy, 2008)

Literature Review: Burnout


Literature review burnout

Literature Review: Burnout

  • Men and Women who are married with children reported lower levels of burnout

    • These individuals interacting with family members have gained the skills to work through stressful problems that tend to cause stress.

    • These individuals use their family as a support system through stressful times.

    • (Greenglass & Burke, 1988)


Analysis

Grayson and Alvarez (2007) studied the elements of stress and what causes teachers to burnout. Nagel and Brown (2008) state that when teachers view stressors as unmanageable or overwhelming burnout occurs.

Three Levels of Burnout; from the MBI; Maslach Burnout Inventory (Greenglass Burk, 1988)

Literature Review: Burnout & Gender

  • 2. Depersonalization: a disconnection from or aversion towards the people you are serving (i.e., students)

  • More often reported by men across professions (Grayson, Alvarez 2007 & Greenglass, Burk 1988)

  • 1. Emotional Exhaustion: “feeling emotionally overextended and drained by others”

  • More often reported by women across professions

  • Societal expectations impact the role of teacher and mother leading to greater amounts of Emotional Exhaustion.

3. Personal Accomplishment: lack of self-confidence and/or self-efficacy in one’s job


Analysis

Coping Strategies

  • Respond to the symptoms

  • Learn to delegate

  • Develop a sense of humor

  • Have a life outside school

  • Be prepared for adversity

  • Know your limitations

  • Know when it’s time to quite

  • Differentiate b/n success and obedience

    Malikow, M. (2007); Nagy, M.L. (2006).


Analysis

References

Appel, J., & Kim-Appel, D. (2008). Family systems at work: The relationship between family coping and employee burnout. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 16, 231-293.

Brown, Sheri, & Nagel, Liza. (2004) “ Preparing Future Teachers to Respond to Stress: Sources and Solutions,” Action in Teacher Education Vol 26(1), 34-42.

Burden, P. R. (1982, February). Personal and professional conflict: Stress for teachers. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of Teacher Educators, Phoenix, AZ.

Grandey, A, A., Cordeiro, B. L. & Crouter, A. C. (2005). A longitudinal and multi-source test of the work-family conflict and job satisfaction relationship. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78, 305-323.

Grayson, Jessica and Alvarez, Heather. (2008) “School climate factors relating to teacher burnout: A mediator model,” Teaching and Teacher Education. Athens, OH; Vol 24.

Greenglass, E.R., & Burke, R.J. (1988). “Work and family Precursors of Burnout in Teachers: Sex Differences,” Sex Roles Vol. 18(3/4), 215-229.


Analysis

References

Gu, Q., & Day, C. (2007). Teachers’ resilience: A necessary condition for effectiveness. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 1302-1316.

Guendouzi, J. (2006). “The guilt thing”: Balancing domestic and professional roles. Journal of Marriage and Family Life, 68, 901-909.

Keene, J.R., & Quadrangno, J. (2004). Predictors of perceived work-family balance:

Gender difference or gender similarity? Sociological Perspectives, 47, 1-23.

Malikow, M. (2007). Staying motivated and avoiding burnout. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 3, 117-127.

Nagy, M.L. (2006). Changes for avoiding burnout in teachers and advisors. The Education Digest, 72, 14-18.

Stevens, D. P., Kiger, G., & Riley, P. J. (2006). His, hers, or ours? Work-to-family spillover, crossover, and family cohesion. The Social Science Journal, 43, 425-436.

Tye, B. B., & O’Brien, L. (2002). Why are experienced teachers leaving the profession? [Electronic version]. Phi Delta Kappan, 84, 24-32.

Rieg, Sue A., Paquette, Kelli R., and Chen Yijie. (2007) “Coping with Stress: An Investigation of Novice Teachers’ Stressors in the Elementary Classroom,” Education, 128(2), 211-226.

O’Donnell, Megan, Lambert, Richard, and McCarthy, Christopher. (2008)“School Poverty Status, Time of Year, and Elementary Teachers’ Perception of Stress.” Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 102(2).


Analysis

Balancing Work and Family Life: A Qualitative Study Examining the Lives of Teachers MethodologyFebruary 17, 2009ELC 688University of North Carolina Greensboro

Ako Barnes, Bethany McKee-Alexander, Mary Julia Moore

& Susan Vanderburg


Phenomenological study

Phenomenological Study

  • How do teachers experience the phenomenon of balance between work and home?

  • How do teachers perceive that balance?


Conceptual framework

Conceptual Framework*

Key Terms:

Other Relevant Terms:

Personal vs Professional factors

Limitations

Mother’s experience/guilt

Male detachment

Resilience

Reciprocal (work—home)

  • Spillover

  • Stress

  • Support

  • Coping

*We will continue to develop the conceptual framework as the study evolves


Definitions

Definitions

  • Spillover: a term used to describe the overflow of experiences from one system into another system or subsystem (Cox & Paley, 1997)

  • Stress: physical, emotional, and mental reactions to certain environmental stimuli (Brown & Nagel, 2004)

  • Support: giving moral or psychological aid or encouragement to others (google.com)

  • Cope: to face and deal with responsibilities, problems, or difficulties, esp. successfully or in a calm or adequate manner (dictionary. com)


Methodology

Methodology

  • Structured Interviews

    • 6-8 Elementary teachers

    • 8-10 Secondary teachers

  • Study sites (Names of schools will be given pseudonyms to maintain anonymity)

    • Teachers from Morehead Elementary, Pilot Elementary, Gravelly Hill Middle School, Smith High School


Research setting study sites

Research Setting/ Study Sites

  • 2 different Elementary Schools

  • 1 Middle School

  • 1 High School


Data collection participant selection

Data Collection/ Participant Selection

Collection

  • Hour interviews

  • Tape record—transcription

  • Teacher Working Condition Survey

  • Research Participants

  • 4 white females Primary

  • 2 white males 2 black females Primary

  • 8 secondary


Consent

Benefits

Sharing experience can validate

Therapeutic

Risk

Increase Stress

Fear of judgment

Confidentiality

How will their story be used

Consent

  • Procedure for access

    • Requesting access from relevant school personnel

    • Explain the possible benefits/risks of participating in study

    • Obtain consent via consent forms


Subjectivity

Subjectivity


Trustworthiness

Trustworthiness

  • Transcriptions

  • Recorded Interviews

  • Feedback from participants on interview transcriptions and analysis

  • Document of participants provided explanation of research


Interview questions

Interview Questions

  • Tell me about yourself.

  • How does personal and professional life overlap/intertwine?

  • Tell me about your experience as a teacher?

  • Is this a typical school year? If not, how is it different?

  • What are the most rewarding aspects of your job?

  • What are the most demanding aspects of your job?

  • How do you spend the majority of your day? How does that make you feel?

  • What are the current stressors in your life?

  • What does stress mean to you?

  • How do you cope with stress?

  • What strategies do you use to reduce stress?


References

References

  • Casey, Kathleen. (1993) I answer with my Life: Life Histories of women teachers working for social change. New York: Routledge.

  • Cox, M. J., & Paley, B. (1997). Families as systems. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 243-267.

  • Maxwell, J. A. (1998). Designing a qualitative study. From Handbook of Applied Social Research Methods (pp.69-98). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

  • Peshkin, A. (1988). In search of subjectivity- - one own. Educational Researcher. 17,17-21.

  • Stevens, D. P., Kiger, G., & Riley, P. J. (2006). His, hers, or ours? Work-to-family spillover, crossover, and family cohesion. The Social Science Journal, 43, 425-436.


Ako barnes bethany mckee alexander mary julia moore susan vanderburg

Ako Barnes, Bethany McKee-Alexander, Mary Julia Moore & Susan Vanderburg

Mental Health and Wellbeing in the Lives of Teachers:Problem StatementFebruary 10, 2009ELC 688University of North Carolina at Greensboro


Setting the scene

Setting the Scene

  • Higher Standards + Initiatives like “No Child Left Behind” + Plus other Responsibilities = Teacher Stress & Burnout

  • Burnout: Absenteeism, Irritability with Students, Feelings of Discouragement and Apathy (Nagy, 2006)


Purpose practical

Purpose: Practical

  • High amounts of teacher turnover (O’Donell, Lambert, & McCarthy, 2008; Tye & O’Brien, 2002)

  • Need to facilitate teacher mental health and well-being

  • Healthy, Satisfied Teachers = Happy, Successful Children

  • Need to Support Teachers


Purpose personal

Purpose: Personal

  • Feel obligated to help our teachers manage stress and find work-life balance

  • Desire to see increased teacher retention in our schools


Research purpose

Research Purpose

What we know

(Burden, 1982; Gu & Day, 2007):

  • Teachers entering profession with high expectations and then experience reality

  • Demands of everyday school life (accountability, paperwork, student behavior problems, lack of parental support) lead to stress, guilt, and feelings of burnout

  • Work and Home Spillover


Research purpose1

Research Purpose

What we do not know:

  • How do environmental conditions impact educators’ feelings of empowerment?

  • Is there a spillover between home environment and work, especially in regards to stress?

  • Is there a link between school environment and stress/burnout?


Research questions

Research Questions

  • How do teachers balance home and school responsibilities?

    • What are the current stresses in teachers’ lives?

    • How do teachers cope with stress? What strategies do teachers use to relieve/reduce stress?

      • Gender/ethnicity differences?

      • Beginner teachers vs. Veteran teachers?

      • Primary vs. Secondary teachers?

      • Are there differences depending on the family make-up?


References1

References

Burden, P. R. (1982, February). Personal and professional conflict: Stress for teachers. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of Teacher Educators, Phoenix, AZ.

Grandey, A, A., Cordeiro, B. L. &Crouter, A. C. (2005). A longitudinal and multi-source test of the

work-family conflict and job satisfaction relationship. Journal of Occupational and Organizational

Psychology, 78, 305-323.

Grayson, J., & Alvarez, H. (2008). School climate factors relating to teacher burnout: A Mediator model. Teaching and Teacher Education,24, 1349-1363.

Gu, Q., & Day, C. (2007). Teachers’ resilience: A necessary condition for effectiveness. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 1302-1316.

Guendouzi, J. (2006). “The guilt thing”: Balancing domestic and professional roles. Journal of Marriage and Family Life, 68, 901-909.

Keene, J.R., & Quadrangno, J. (2004). Predictors of Perceived Work-Family Balance:

Gender Difference or Gender Similarity? SocialogicalPerspectatives, 47(1), 1-23.

Malikow, M. (2007). Staying motivated and avoiding burnout. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 3, 117-127.

Nagy, M.L. (2006). Changes for avoiding burnout in teachers and advisors. The EducationDigest, 72, 14-18.

O’Donnell, M., Lambert, R. & McCarthy, C. (2008). School poverty status time of year and Elementary teachers’ perception of stress. Journal of Educational Research, 102, 152-159.

Tye, B. B. & O’Brien, L. (2002). Why are Experienced Teachers Leaving the Profession? [Electronic version]. Phi Delta Kappan, 84, 24-32.


Analysis

Balancing Work and Family Life: A Qualitative Study Examining the Lives of Teachers ELC 688University of North Carolina Greensboro

Ako Barnes, Bethany McKee-Alexander, Mary Julia Moore

& Susan Vanderburg


  • Login