Physiological Psychology

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Anatomical Terms for Directions. Road map of the nervous system uses technical terms to describe a three dimensional structurebasic terms include, e.g., ventral, dorsal, lateral and medial permits clear communication among investigators. Dorsal
Physiological Psychology

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1. Physiological Psychology Parts of the nervous system

2. Anatomical Terms for Directions Road map of the nervous system uses technical terms to describe a three dimensional structure basic terms include, e.g., ventral, dorsal, lateral and medial permits clear communication among investigators

3. Dorsal ? towards the back Ventral ? towards the stomach Anterior ? towards the front Posterior ? towards the rear Lateral ? towards the side: away from the midline Medial ? towards the midline: away from the side

5. Contralateral ? on the opposite side of the body Ipsilateral ? on the same side of the body

6. Planes Coronal plane ? from the front Sagittal plane ? from the side Horizontal plane ? from above

7. Divisions of the Nervous System Central Nervous System: Includes Brain and Spinal Cord

8. Peripheral Nervous System: All other neural tissue. Specifically, the periphery. This includes muscles, the skin, and even the organs PNS broken down into two parts Somatic nervous system: nerve fibers that send sensory information to the central nervous system AND motor nerve fibers that project to skeletal muscle.

9. Autonomic nervous system ? Controls the "insides" (the "viscera") of our body, like the heart, stomach and intestines - functions in an involuntary, reflexive manner - does things like constrict blood vessels, dilate pupils, and even makes our heart beat fast on a roller coaster, etc. -Has two components - A. Sympathetic nervous system: - B. Parasympathetic nervous system

10. Sympathetic NS- Regulates ?Fight or Flight? Prepares the body during stressful situations Increases heart beat, blood pressure, speeds breathing, slows digestive function Parasympathetic NS ? Regulates "rest and digest" Keeps the body running calmly Shuts down the sympathetic NS when the situation becomes less stressful

13. Parts of the CNS Spinal Cord: Two types of material, white matter (Axons) and grey matter (cell bodies)

15. Bell-Magendie Law: the entering dorsal roots carry sensory information to the brain and, the exiting ventral roots carry motor information to the muscles and glands Dorsal root ganglia: clusters of neurons outside, but near, the spinal cord on the dorsal roots carrying sensory information Cut the spinal cord and brain loses motor control over parts of body served by that segment and below

17. Anatomical terms in the brain Lamina ? a layer of cells separated from others Tract ? Bundles of axons from one group of neurons that project to another group of neurons Projections Nerve ? a set of axons in the periphery Nucleus ? A cluster of neuron cell bodies in the CNS

18. Ganglion - A cluster of neuron cell bodies, usually in the periphery Gyrus (gyri) a protuberance on the surface of the brain Sulcus ? a fold or groove that separates one gyrus from another Fissure ? a long, deep sulcus

19. Parts of the Brain 3 major divisions Hindbrain: Cerebellum; Pons; Medulla Forebrain: Cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus Midbrain

21. Hindbrain Cerebellum: Extremely large area, millions of neurons Morphologically distinct Responsible for coordination of movement timing Eyeblink conditioning

22. Pons Important for sleep and especially dreaming Part of the ?brainstem? Phylogenetically old

23. Medulla Controls all vital functions of the body including breathing and heart rate Does so through the 12 cranial nerves Reticular formation ? a system within the medulla and pons responsible for stereotypical actions, such as walking, sleeping, and lying down. Responsible for arousal, alertness, fatigue Raphe nucleus ? subsection of reticular formation ? contains the neurons that make serotonin

25. The Midbrain Consists of Tectum and tegmentum, Tectum ? roof Includes the superior and inferior colliculi ? important contributions to sensory processing. Tegmentum ? floor Ventral tegmental area (VTA) ? very important dopamine pathways Reward circuits

26. Forebrain Most anterior and most prominent part of the brain Includes cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, hippocampus, amygdala, and basal ganglia. Thalamus Primary relay station of the brain Almost all sensory information passes through before going elsewhere

27. Hypothalamus Regulates autonomic nervous system Regulates hormones, ?4 F?s?; Feeding, Fighting, Fleeing, and sexual behavior Controls the pituitary gland Basal ganglia ? group of structures including Striatum ? Caudate and putamen Globus palidus Substantia Nigra - dopamine Connections with the cortex and thalamus motor control, cognition, emotions and learning

29. Nucleus Accumbens ? receives dopaminergic input from the VTA Reward center Olds and Milner Important aspects of attention and thinking Ventricles ? spaces in the brain containing cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) 4 ventricles Produces CSF Serves to cushion and support the brain

32. Forebrain Thalamus Primary relay station of the brain Almost all sensory information passes through before going elsewhere Hypothalamus Regulates autonomic nervous system Regulates hormones, ?4 F?s?; Feeding, Fighting, Fleeing, and sexual behavior Amygdala Responsible for many aspects of emotion Emotional learning

33. Hippocampus Especially important for learning and memory Resolving conflict Cerebral Cortex Does just about everything Many think that the cortex is what makes humans the way they are Cortex is broken up into 4 lobes: Frontal lobe: the front of the brain Temporal lobe: side, the temples Parietal lobe: kinda middle portion Occipital Lobe: very back

34. Cortex Humans have large amounts of cortical tissue


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