Electronegativity
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Electronegativity. Definition. The property which describes the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself in a covalent bond. The values may differ depending on methods used in calculation. Represented by the symbol χ

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Definition
Definition

  • The property which describes the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself in a covalent bond.

  • The values may differ depending on methods used in calculation.

  • Represented by the symbolχ

  • Since it is not a measured value, there is no units for electronegativity.


Trend column
Trend (Column)

  • As you go down the column the magnitude of electronegativity decreases.

  • This is due to shielding

    • As you get down the periodic table, the number of electron shells increases.


Trend row
Trend (Row)

  • As you go across the row, the magnitude of electronegativity increases.

  • Electronegativity is heavily related with the ionization energy; as ionization energy increases across the row, electronegativity is also increases.

  • Although the number of electrons is increasing, shielding is negligible for group1-18 because each extra electron enters the same electron subshell.


Exception
Exception

  • Lanthanides and actinides: the composition of these elements are different from those elements that follows the trend. Hydrogen

  • Transition metals: They also have different

  • Noble gases: these elements possess full electron shells. Therefore they do not attract the electrons and their electronegativity values are almost zero.

    • However, since it is calculation, there ARE defined electronegativity values for noble gasses.


Different scales of electronegativity
Different Scales of Electronegativity

  • There are several scientists came up with methods to define χ.

    • Pauling: first proposed the concept of electronegativity using dissociation enegies

    • Mulliken: used arithmetic mean of the first ionization energy to defineχ

    • Allred-Rochow: used Z* values to calculate the electronegativity

    • Sanderson:Came up with a calculation using reciprocal of the atomic volume

  • Although they are different scales, all electronegativity behave in similar way.


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