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Convection driven by differential buoyancy fluxes on a horizontal boundary. ‘Horizontal convection’. Ross Griffiths Research School of Earth Sciences The Australian National University. Overview. #1 • What is ‘horizontal convection’? • Some history and oceanographic motivation

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convection driven by differential buoyancy fluxes on a horizontal boundary

Convection driven by differential buoyancy fluxeson a horizontal boundary

‘Horizontal convection’

Ross Griffiths

Research School of Earth Sciences The Australian National University

overview
Overview

#1

• What is ‘horizontal convection’?

• Some history and oceanographic motivation

• experiments, numerical solutions

• controversy about “Sandstrom’s theorem”

• how it works

#2

• instabilities and transitions

• solution for convection at large Rayleigh number

• two sinking regions

#3

• Coriolis effects

• adjustment to changing boundary conditions

• thermohaline effects

role of buoyancy
Role of buoyancy?
  • Surface buoyancy fluxes --> deep convection
  • dense overflows, slope plumes (main sinking branches of MOC).

Can sinking persist? How is density removed from abyssal waters? Does the deep ocean matter?

N

S

Potential temperature section 25ºW (Atlantic) – WOCE A16 65ºN – 55ºS

preview
Preview

convection in a rotating, rectangular basin

heated over 1/2 of the base, cooled over 1/2 of the base

stommel s meridional overturning the smallness of sinking regions
Stommel’s meridional overturning:the “smallness of sinking regions”

Imposed surface temperature gradient

low temp

higher temp

High

latitudes

low

latitudes

Solution: Down flow in only one pipe !

Stommel, Proc. N.A.S. 1962

stommel s meridional overturning the smallness of sinking regions1
Stommel’s meridional overturning:the “smallness of sinking regions”

Imposed surface temperature gradient

low temp

higher temp

thermocline

High

latitudes

low

latitudes

abyssal flow?

  • Thermocline + small region of sinking
  • maximal downward diffusion of heat

Stommel, Proc. N.A.S. 1962

early experiments thermal convection with a linear variation of bottom temperature
Early experiments: thermal convection with a linear variation of bottom temperature

(Rossby, Deep-Sea Res. 1965)

10 cm

24.5 cm

slide8

Numerical solutions for thermal convection

(linear variation of bottom temperature)

(re-computing Rossby’s solutions, Tellus 1998)

Ra=103

Ra=104

Ra=105

Ra=106

Ra=107

Ra=108

slide9

Numerical solutions for thermal convection

(linear variation of bottom temperature)

(re-computing Rossby’s solutions, Tellus 1998)

Ra=103

Ra=104

Ra=105

Ra=106

Ra=107

Ra=108

solutions for infinite pr

Linear T applied to top

Solutions for infinite Pr

Chiu-Webster, Hinch & Lister, 2007

back step to sandstr m s theorem sandstr m 1908 1916
back-step … to Sandström’s “theorem” (Sandström 1908, 1916)

“a closed steady circulation can only be maintained in the ocean if the heat source is situated at a lower level than the cold source” (Defant 1961; become known as ‘Sandstrom’s theorem’)

  • Sandström concluded that a thermally-driven circulation can exist only if the heat source is below the cold source

Surface heat fluxes … “cannot produce the vigorous flow we observe in the deep oceans. There cannot be a primarily convectively driven circulation of any significance” (Wunsch 2000)

sandstr m experiments revisited

• one large cell (maximum vel near source heights)

  • approximately uniform temperature

X

X

X

  • significant circulation
  • two anticlockwise cells
  • plume from each source reaches top or bottom

X

X

  • three anticlockwise cells
  • plume from each source reaches nearest horizontal boundary
Sandström experiments revisited

He reported:

C

H

I: Heating below cooling

  • still upper and lower layer, circulating middle layer
  • three layers of different temperature

II: Heating/cooling at same level

  • circulation ceases

III: Heating above cooling

  • water remains still throughout
  • upper (lower) layer temperature equal to hot (cold) source, stable gradient between

C

H

H

C

sources at same level
Sources at same level
  • diffusion (Jeffreys, 1925)
    • heating at levels below the cooling source
    • cooling at levels above the heating source
    • horizontal density gradient
    • drives overturning circulation throughout fluid
  • physically and thermodynamically consistent view of Sandström’s experiment and horizontal convection
  • no grounds to justify the conclusion of no motion when heating and cooling applied are at the same level.

C

H

comparison of three classes of steady state convection

Side-wall heating and cooling

Higher

T

Low

T

FB

Horizontal convection

In Boussinesq case, zero net buoy flux through any level

FB

heating

higher temp

lower temp

cooling

Comparison of three classes of (steady-state) convection

Rayleigh-Benard

low T

FB

higher T

horizontal convection
Horizontal convection

Ocean orientation

lower temp

higher temp

Destabilizing buoyancy forces deep circulation

Zero net buoy flux through any level

FB

laboratory orientation

FB

higher temp

lower temp

boundary layer analysis for imposed t after rossby 1965
Boundary layer analysisfor imposed T(after Rossby 1965)

Ta

h

u

Tc

TH

Steady state balances:

• continuity +vertical advection-diffusion

uh ~ wL ~ TL/h

• buoyancy - horizontal viscous stresses

gTh/L ~ u/h2

• conservation of heat

FL~ ocpTuh

h ~ c1Ra–1/5

=>

u ~ c2Ra2/5

Nu ~ c3Ra1/5

Ra = gTL3/

solutions for infinite pr1

Linear T applied to top

Solutions for infinite Pr

Rossby scaling holds at Ra > 105

Chiu-Webster, Hinch& Lister, 2007

slide18
Experiments at larger Ra, smaller D/L, applied T or heat flux(Mullarney, Griffiths, Hughes, J. Fluid Mech. 2004)

Room

Ta

Parameters:

RaF = gFL4/(ocpT2

Pr = /T

A = D/L

and define Nu = FL/(ocpTT= RaF/Ra

recent experiments larger ra smaller d l mullarney griffiths hughes j fluid mech 2004

Recent experimentslarger Ra, smaller D/L(Mullarney, Griffiths, Hughes, J. Fluid Mech. 2004)

Movie - whole tank

ra f 1 75 x 10 14 h l 0 16 pr 5 18 mullarney griffiths hughes j fluid mech 2004

RaF = 1.75 x 1014H/L = 0.16Pr = 5.18 (Mullarney, Griffiths, Hughes, J. Fluid Mech. 2004)

Movie - whole tank

slide21

Recent experimentslarger Ra, smaller aspect ratio, applied heat flux(Mullarney, Griffiths, Hughes, J. Fluid Mech. 2004)

synthetic schlieren image showing vertical density gradients above heated end
‘Synthetic schlieren’ image showing vertical density gradients (above heated end)

x=0

x=L/2=60cm

20cm

imposed heat flux

b l analysis for imposed heat flux mullarney et al 2004
B. L. analysis for imposed heat flux(Mullarney et al. 2004)

Ta

h

u

Tc

F

T/T ~ b0RaF-1/6

Steady state balances:

• continuity +vertical advection-diffusion

uh ~ wL ~ TL/h

• buoyancy - horizontal viscous stresses

gTh/L ~ u/h2

• conservation of heat

FL~ ocpTuh

h/L ~ b1RaF–1/6

uL/T ~ b2RaF1/3

=>

wL/T ~ b3RaF1/6

Nu ~ b0-1RaF1/6

T = FL/ocpT)

temperature profiles

temperature profiles

Above heated base (fixed F)

Above cooled base (fixed T)

2d simulation

0

RaF = 1.75 x 1014

H/L = 0.16

Pr = 5.18

2D simulation

Horizontal velocity

(m/s)

2d simulation1

0

RaF = 1.75 x 1014

H/L = 0.16

Pr = 5.18

2D simulation

Horizontal velocity

vertical velocity

(m/s)

snap shot of solution at lab conditions

RaF = 1.75 x 1014

H/L = 0.16

Pr = 5.18

Snap-shot of solution at lab conditions

T

Eddy travel times ~ 20 - 40 min

time averaged solutions for larger ra

RaF = 1.75 x 1014

H/L = 0.16

Pr = 5.18

Time-averaged solutions for larger Ra

T

Horizontal velocity reversal ~ mid-depth

Time-averaged downward advection over most of the box

b l scaling and experimental results

B.L. Scaling and experimental results

Circles - experiments; squares & triangle - numerical solutions

After adjustment for different boundary conditions (RaF = NuRa)

these data lie at 1011 < Ra < 1013.

Agreement also with Rossby experiments at Ra<108

Mullarney, Griffiths, Hughes, J Fluid Mech. 2004

asymmetry and sensitivity
Asymmetry and sensitivity
  • Large asymmetry (small region of sinking)
  • maximal downward diffusion of heat
  • suppression of convective instability (at moderate Ra) by advection of stably-stratified BL
  • interior temperature is close to the highest temperature in the box
  • A delicate balance in which convection breaks through the stably-stratified BL only at the end wall
  • maximal horiz P gradient, maximal overturn strength,

and a state of minimal potential energy (compared with less asymmetric flows - from a GCM, Winton 1995)

=> sensitivity to changes of BC’s and to fluxes through other boundaries

buoyancy fluxes from opposite boundary eg geothermal heat input to ocean

Buoyancy fluxes from opposite boundary(eg. geothermal heat input to ocean)

Differential forcing

at top only (applied flux

and applied T)

T

Add 10% heat

input at base

T

Or add 10% heat

loss at base

T

Mullarney, Griffiths, Hughes, Geophys. Res. Lett. 2006

buoyancy fluxes from opposite boundary eg geothermal heat input to ocean1

Buoyancy fluxes from opposite boundary(eg. geothermal heat input to ocean)

Mullarney, Griffiths, Hughes, Geophys. Res. Lett. 2006

summary
Summary

Experiments with ‘horizontal’ thermal convection show

• convective circulation through the full depth in steady state, but a very small interior density gradient at large Ra

• tightly confined plume at one end of the box

• interior temperature close to the extreme in the box (10-15% from the extremum at end of B.L.)

• stable boundary layer in region of stabilizing flux, consistent with vertical advective-diffusive balance

• suppression of instability up to moderate Ra by horizontal advection of the stable ‘thermocline’, but onset of instability at RaF ~ 1012 / Ra ~ 1010

• circulation is robust to different types of surface thermal B.C.s, but sensitive to fluxes from other boundaries

next time
Next time:

• instabilities, transitions in Ra-Pr plane

• inviscid model for large Ra and comparison with measurements

• sensitivity to unsteady B.C.s, temporal adjustment, and transitions between full- and partial-depth overturning (shutdown of sinking?)

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