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Foundations of History. Asian History and Civilization. Prehistory History Civilization Culture Asian. Definition of Terms. Terms. Pre-history – the period of human progress before people kept written records

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Foundations of History

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Foundations of history

Foundations of History

Asian History and Civilization

Definition of terms






Definition of Terms



Pre-history – the period of human progress before people kept written records

History – comes from a Greek word ἱστορία – historia, meaning "inquiry,

knowledge acquired by investigation"

– a chronological record of significant events (as affecting a nation

or institution) often including an explanation of their causes

Civilization – An advanced state of intellectual, cultural, and material

development in human society

Culture – the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that

depends upon the capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge

to succeeding generations

Asia – comes from the word Asuwhich means “place

of the rising sun”

For the early greeks like aristotle

For the early Greeks like Aristotle…

  • “History is a systematic explanation of a natural phenomenon regardless if it is chronological or not.”

Leopold von ranke father of scientific history

Leopold Von Ranke- Father of Scientific History

Kinds of sources

Kinds of Sources

Examples of sources

Examples of Sources

  • diaries

  • memoirs

  • biography

  • speeches

  • letters

  • pamphlet

  • Statistics

  • Codified laws, orders, decrees

  • Government records

  • Inscriptions on stones, metals

  • Monuments, cemeteries, churches

  • Money and coins

  • Oral traditions

Foundations of history

  • Am I an art or science?

    - History

History as science


  • As a social science, history follows the scientific method.

History as a science


  • History is more of a science because it is primarily based on facts

  • Historian follows a rigorous method in history writing- historical methodology.

Historical process

Historical Process

  • Choosing Framework

  • Gathering Data

  • Analyzing Data and Understanding the Meaning and Relevance of the Data (External and Internal Criticism)

  • Reconstructing History

What is historical criticism

What is historical criticism?

  • In historical methodology, sources must be authentic and credible

  • It examines the authenticity and credibility of sources

  • It has two levels.

External criticism

External criticism

  • Examines the physical appearance of the document (example: color of paper used, condition and characteristics of the paper, ink used, handwriting style, etc. )

  • Answers the following questions:

    • What, where, when and how was the document acquired?

    • Is the document original or a copy of the original

    • Is the document primary or secondary?

    • Is the document authentic?

Internal criticism

Internal criticism

  • Higher level of criticism

  • Examines the content and interpretation of the document

  • Examines the content of the document

  • Examine the words used in the document

History as an art


  • History is an art because the historian interprets facts from sources.

  • When the historian writes history, it must be well-organized, coherent and elegant.

Is history related to the other social sciences

Is history related to the other social sciences?

  • Use of theories and methods of other social sciences

  • Led to the creation of other subfields of history

    • political history

      • economic history

        • cultural history

          • social history

            • environmental history

Related social science

Related Social Science

Geography - The study of the earth and its features and of the distribution of life on the earth, including human life and the effects of human activity

Political Science - The study of the processes, principles, and structure of

government and of political institutions; politics.

Economics - Deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services and with the theory and management of economies or economic systems.


Sociology - The study of human social behavior,

especially the study of the origins,

organization, institutions, and

development of human society

Foundations of history

Psychology - The emotional and behavioral characteristics of an individual, group, or activity

Ethics - The study of the general nature of morals and of the specific moral choices to be made by a person; moral philosophy.

Anthropology - The scientific study of the origin, the behavior, and the physical, social, and cultural development of humans.

Religion - A personal or institutionalized system grounded in such belief and worship

Archaeology - is the study of past human societies primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environment

Geological features of asia

Geological Features of Asia

Location, Topography, Climate and Resources

Major topographic features

Major Topographic Features

  • Mountain Ranges

    - Himalayas, Karakorum, Hindu Kush, Urals, Caucasus

  • Highest Mountains

    - Mt. Everest, Kanchenjunga, Lhotse, Makalu

  • Largest Lakes

    -Aral Sea, Lake Baikal, Caspian Sea, Dead Sea

  • Major Rivers

    - Chao Phraya, Euphrates, Ganges, Huang Ho, Indus, Irrawaddy,


    Lowest Area

    - Dead Sea Coast

How was asia formed

How was Asia formed?

Geography of asia s sub regions

Geography of Asia’s sub-regions


    - characterized by a continuous cover of plants or grasslands

    - Grasslands are classified into 3 types:

    steppes - continuous mat of shallow-rooted short grasses

    prairies - characterized by tall and deeply-rooted grasses

    savannas - characterized by the mingling of forests and


  • Boreal forest and taiga vegetation is found in North Asia

    Boreal – coniferous forest

    Taiga – marshy pine forest

South asia s geography

South Asia’s Geography

  • Home to majority of the world’s highest mountains

    - Himalayan Mountain range

    - Mount Everest

    - Mount Kanchenjunga

    - Hindu Kush

    - Khyber Pass

West asia s geography

West Asia’s Geography

  • 3 physical region is found in this region:

    Northern Tier, Arabian peninsula and the Fertile Crescent

    Northern Tier – characterized by the presence of mountainsand plateaus

    Arabian peninsula – surrounded by bodies of water

    Fertile Crescent – consists of fertile land with sufficient water

Foundations of history


Gulf States

Saudi Arabia


















East asia s geography

East Asia’s Geography

  • This region is consist of various physical features

  • China – Gobi Desert, Mongolian and Tibetan plateaus3 river systems: Huang Ho, Yangtze, Xi Jiang

  • Japan – separated from mainland East Asia bythe

    Korean Strait- compose of Kyushu, Shikoku, Honshuand Hokkaido

Southeast asia s geography

Southeast Asia’s Geography

Foundations of history

Mainland Southeast Asia

Insular Southeast Asia






East Timor (Timor Leste)






Monsoons in asia

Monsoons in Asia

  • Northeast Monsoons – November to February (amihan)

    winds from the continent moves toward the bodies of


  • Southwest Monsoons – May to September (habagat)

    winds from the bodies of water toward the continent

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