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Evaluation of the Effectiveness of an Initiative to Develop Leadership Skills among Women in Africa: A Case Study . Evaluation of the Sisters Leadership Development Initiative (SLDI) By Jane M. Wakahiu Lsosf , Ph. D. Challenge to Leadership in sub-Saharan Africa .

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Evaluation of the Effectivenessof an Initiative to Develop Leadership Skills among Women in Africa: A Case Study

Evaluation of the Sisters Leadership Development Initiative (SLDI)

By Jane M. WakahiuLsosf, Ph. D.

challenge to leadership in sub saharan africa
Challenge to Leadership in sub-Saharan Africa
  • frequent political instability, few social services, limited technological networks, inequality in resource management and distribution (Collier,2007; Ochola, 2007; Moss, 2007).
  • Study of 213 countries, more women leaders, more women are mentors and role models (Bullogh, 2006)
  • No studies have empirically examined: leadership development; management experiences and performance of women religious.
the sisters leadership development sldi program
The Sisters Leadership Development (SLDI) Program
  • Initiated in 2007 with a $2 million grant from the Conrad Hilton Foundation
  • Leadership needs, essential tracks and competencies are were delineated.
  • Trainee and instructors recruited and program commenced in five countries (Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Uganda, Tanzania)
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Purpose

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to evaluate the Sisters Leadership Development Initiative (SLDI) program.

  • Determine
    • impact
    • effectiveness
    • changes that resulted
  • Assess the pedagogical practices
  • Describe sustainability strategies
objectives of the sldi program
Objectives of the SLDI Program
  • Transfer knowledge and skills
  • Encourage creative and effective practices
  • Identify, mobilize resources
  • Expand knowledge of development issues
  • Enhance skills in human relations
  • Develop skills in strategic planning
  • Ensure sustainability of the projects

SLDI Program Handbook, 2007

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Research Questions

1. Have the goals and objectives of the SLDI program been attained?

a. Program delivery model match initial strategy

b. Most effective pedagogical strategies

2. What is the impact of the SLDI program on the ministries of the participants?

a. Projects evolved and benefits of the program to stakeholders?

3. Are strategies in place to sustain the program for the future?

a. What are perceived lasting effects and plans for the continuity of the program?

rogers 2003

Theoretical perspective

Rogers, 2003

Culture software of the Mind (Hofstede, 2005)

Transformational leadership (Bass, 1985)

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Methodology

  • Research design qualitative case study. In-depth exploration of the context, perspectives, and details of the activities
  • Participants - Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Ghana, Nigeria and United States
  • Interviewees (45)
      • 32 trainees
      • 10 instructors
      • 3 administrators

Merriam, 2001; Creswell, 2007

data recording and processing
Data recording and processing
  • Transcribed verbatim
  • Excel data base
  • “Conversing” with data
  • Open-coding
  • Axial-coding categories w/sub-categories
  • Face-to-face and phone interviews
  • Site-visit observations
  • Document analysis
  • Field notes, tape- recorded interviews
percent trainee participants by track

Findings

Percent trainee participants by track

Percent trainee participants by country of origin

community transformation
Community Transformation

Improved farming methods

Water reservoir

  • sinking wells, defloridation
  • Improved farming
  • job creation

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conclusions
Conclusions
  • Leadership proficiency created transformation; women agents of change.
  • Meaningful pedagogical practices encourage skills transfer to workplaces
  • Mentoring enhanced skills transfer and is a sustainable strategy
  • Program effects, change in management, increase in individual leadership insights led to societal change
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Leadership training provided a “moral campus” - building confidence and self-efficacy

  • Leadership program a favorable investment for women empowerment in the sub-Saharan Africa
  • Reframe organizations by adopting best leadership practice
  • Innovative programs and projects and use of technology for change
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References

Akata, G. I., & Renner, J. R. (2009). Educational leadership in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria: A study of the perceptions of its impact on the acquired leadership skills of expatriate Nigerian postgraduates. In A. W. Wiseman (Ed.), Educational leadership: Global contexts and interactions comparisons (pp. 123-152). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Allen, T. D., & O’Brien, K. E. (2006). Formal mentoring programs and organizational attraction. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 17, 43-58.

Ardichivili, A., Cardozo, R. N., & Gasparishvili, A. (1998). Leadership styles and management practices of Russian entrepreneurs: implications for transferability of Western HRD interventions. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 9(2), 145-155.

Ayittey, G. B. M. (1992). Africa betrayed. New York, NY: St. Martin/Marek.

Avolio, B. J., Bass, B. M., & Jung, D. I. (1999). Re-examining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the multifactor leadership questionnaire. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72, 441-462.

Avolio, J. B., & Bass, B. M. (1998). You can drag a horse to water but you can’t make it drink unless it is thirsty. Journal of Leadership Studies, 5(1), 4-17.

Avolio, B. J. (1999). Full leadership development: Building the vital forces in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Walumbwa, F. O., Luthans, F., & May, D. R. (2004). Unlocking the mask: A look at the process by which authentic leader’s impact follower attitudes and behavior. Leadership Quarterly, 15(6), 801-823.

Alexander, D. (2001). Africa on the brink. Retrieved from http://www.blackstate.com/africaonthebrink.html

Awedoba, A. K. (2005). Culture and development in Africa: With special reference to Ghana. Accra, Ghana: University of Ghana Press.

Baker, J. L. (2000). Evaluating the impact of development projects on poverty: A handbook for practitioners. Washington D.C: World Bank.

Baker, R. A. (1997). How can we train leaders if we do not know what leadership is? Human Relations, 50(4), 51-71.

Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. New York, NY: General Learning Press.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and actions. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Barnes, C. (1996). Assets and the impact of microenterprise finance programs. Washington DC: Management Systems International.

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectation. New York, NY: Free Press.

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Evaluation of the Effectiveness of an Initiative to Develop Leadership Skills among Women in Africa: A Case Study

Questions

Jane Wakahiu, Lsosf, Ph. D.

African Sisters Education Collaborative (ASEC) &

Sisters Leadership Development Initiative (SLDI)

Marywood University

[email protected]

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