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Perfect Tense Verbs & Principal Parts. Ecce Romani Ch. 19 & 20 PERFECT TENSE - a COMPLETED action that happened in the PAST. Compare the following Examples: Present Caupo mussat . The innkeeper mutters . Imperfect Caupo mussabat . The innkeeper was muttering. Perfect

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Perfect tense verbs principal parts

Perfect Tense Verbs & Principal Parts

Ecce Romani Ch. 19 & 20

PERFECT TENSE - aCOMPLETED action that happened in the PAST.


Perfect tense

Compare the following Examples:

  • Present

    Caupomussat. The innkeeper mutters.

  • Imperfect

    Caupomussabat.

    The innkeeper was

    muttering.

  • Perfect

    Caupomussavit. The inkeepermuttered.

PERFECT TENSE

- COMPLETED action that happened in the PAST.


Perfect tense translations
PERFECT TENSE TRANSLATIONS

  • -ed- most common, but can be a challenge with irregular verbs in English.

  • has / have –ed

  • did – used mostly in questions, but can be easier in English than the “-ed”.



Perfect tense signs
Perfect Tense Signs

  • Most perfect tense verb stems end in the letters –x, -l, -s, -u, or –v.

  • Use this mnemonic device to remember them: “X-traLong S.U.V.”

    Ex. from this chapter:


Perfect tense signs1
Perfect Tense Signs

  • Most perfect tense verb stems end in the letters –x, -l, -s, -u, or –v.

  • Use this mnemonic device to remember them: “X-traLong S.U.V.”

    Ex. from this chapter:


No tense sign verbs
“No Tense Sign” Verbs

  • These stems and endings look like in the present tense, but have a lengthened vowel (vowel with a macron) BEFORE the endings.

    Ex. Etiam Marcus advenit. (present)

    Marcus also arrives.

    Etiam Marcus advēnit. (perfect)

    Marcus also arrived.

    N.B. Your book resources will not always give the macron – translate according to context!


Principal parts
PRINCIPAL PARTS

  • All VERBS have 4 main parts called PRINCIPLE PARTS.

  • These are the words provided in the dictionary entry. They are listed in the same order by which we refer to them: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th.

    Ex.

    Amo, amare, amavi, amatus



Review the 2 nd principal part tells us the conjugation of the verb
REVIEW: The 2ndPrincipal part tells us the conjugation of the verb:

Conjugation

1st P.P., 2nd P.P.

  • 1st Conjugation

  • 2nd Conjugation

  • 3rd Conjugation

    • 3rd –io

  • 4th Conjugation

  • -o, -are

  • -eo, -ere (“strong”, sometimes w/macron)

  • -o, -ere (“weak”, no macron)

    • -io, -ere

  • -io, -ire


Perfect stem
PERFECT STEM

  • This is the part of the verb that will contain an “X-tra Long S.U.V.” stem change, if there is one.

  • Find the perfect stem by dropping the –I ending from the 3rd Principle Part.

  • This is the stem we use to conjugate verbs in the Perfect Tense.


Principal part patterns
Principal Part Patterns

  • It’s easy to recognize verbs in the 1st, 2nd and 4th principal parts:

  • 1st - -o, -are, -avi, -atus

  • 2nd - -eo, -ere, -ui, -itus

  • 4th- -io, -ire, -ivi, -itus

  • 3rd Conjugation verbs are less predictable.

  • They most commonly use the –x, -l and –s stem changes.

  • We just have to memorize / look them up as needed.


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