Development of Madhyamaka Philosophy. Arya Nagarjuna and Madhyamaka philosophy. Madhyamaka Philosophy. The Madhyamaka Philosophy was created by Arya Nagarjuna Pada and he lived between 2 nd and 3 rd Century A.D. It was mentioned earlier that Arya Nagarjuna has written a Commentary to
Arya Nagarjuna and Madhyamaka philosophy
Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita in the name of Mahaprajnaparamita Sastra.
Theory in his mind when he was writing Maha-
Sunyatam tam pracakmahe
Sa prajnapti mupadaya
Pratiptsaiva madhyama – 24:18
(If anything is dependently originated we say that is Sunya, that is dependent upon convention. That itself is middle path)
Sunyata means theory of Pratityasamutpada.
(Dependently origination). Then at the very
beginning in the pranama gatha (Paying Homage ) of Mulamadhyamaka karika
mentions in the 2nd stanza.
Tam vande vadatam varam
(I salute him, the fully enlightened, the best
of Speakers, who preached the dependent
arising, the appeasement of obsessions and the auspicious).
Dharmah kascid na vidyate
Yasmat tasmat asunyo hi
Dharmah kascin na vidyate -24:19
(There is no a thing that is not dependently
Arisen. For that reason, a thing that is non-empty is also not evident.)
not the pratityasamutpada but nature of dependently origination of everything.
and Effect (Phala).
things are not produced by hetu-Pratyaya.
Na svato na pi parato
Na dvabhyam na pi ahetutah
Uppanna jatu vidyante
Bhavah kvacana kecana
himself, by otherselves, by both, or without a cause).
The Main teachings of Madhyamaka Philosophy
T.R.V.Murti shows the four instances of the
Development of Madhyamaka Philosophy.
Those are: 1.Writing the primary works of the Madhyamaka philosophy by Arya Nagarjuna and his close students. 2. Writing the commentaries to the Madhyamaka Karika by
Buddhapalita and Bavaviveka. 3.writing
Prasannapada tika by Candrakirthi Pada to
approve the Buddhapalita’s view. 4. starting the system of interpretation with the mixer
century, written a large number of Books.
Among those books Karika (Madhyamaka Karika) becomes primary work and the
commentaries written for the Karika. In the
history of Madhyamaka philosophy Arydeva pada was considered as one of the members of orijinators of this system similar to Arya Nagarjuna. Aryadeva has written
Catussataka explaining Madhyamaka system
Candrakirthi has written a commentary to it. According to the commentary to the
A.K.Wader says Aryadevapada takes the Bodhisattva doctrine as primary teachings.
into the 16 chapters and each chapter contains 25 slokas. In the first part of this
the Sankhya and Vaisesika views. In the book called Satasatra he discarded the views of Sankhya, Vaisesika, Jaina, Lokayata and Theistic views mentioning their names. According to Tibetan system
Catussataka, Aksarasataka, Hastavala
also ascribed to him.
the other student of Nagarjuna Pada. He has written a Commentary to Pancavimsati
Sahasrika Maha Prajna Paramita.
philosophy and the Prajnaparamita Sutras
are clearly shown. Dvadasa Sastra, an
explanation of Madhyamaka Philosophy
(Only exists in Chainese language) also considered as one of his works. According to these information the works of Nagarjuna pada and is close two students’ works can
which was written by Buddhapalita is not
Buddhapalita (470-550) has written commentaries to the works of Nagarjuna and Aryadeva. Buddhapalita was a great master and he was the exponent of Prasangika system of Mahayana Buddhism.
It was said that he was born in Hamsakrida,
received novice and full ordination and entered Nalanda monastery, where he studied under a Acarya Sangharaksita, himself a disciple of Nagamitra.Buddhapalita
quickly Mastered the teachings of Arya Nagarjuna, later while residing at Dantapura
many commentaries to the works of Nagarjuna and Aryadeva.
In the 6th Century CE Buddhapalita composed his famous commentary to Nagarjuna’s Fundamental Wisdom (Mulasastra)called Buddhapalita Vrtti, a work of great clarity and insight.
employed consequences to elaborate Madhyamaka view. His younger contemporary Bhavaviveka also composed a comentary to Nagarjuna’s work called Lamp
of wisdom (Prajnapradipa) in which he criticized Buddhapalita’s position.
by drawing out the implications (falacious
nature) of their views, but does not show Madhyamaka’s own thesis. This is the meaning of Prasangavada (Acaryo bhuyasya
prasangapatti mukhenaiva parapaksam
nirakarotisma. Madhyamaka vrtti
This particular theory of Prasangavada of Buddhapalita Thera in Madhyamaka Karika
is pointed out by Candrakirti Pada in his Madhyamaka Karika Vrtti. Therefore we have to accept that Buddhapalita Thera was the originator of Prasangika system.
Svatantrika tradition. Svatantrika system
is to criticize other’s views to prove Madhyamaka stand, but must put forward his own arguments (Swatantra anumana).
That means while refuting opponents views he must bring forward his own thesis.
Buddhapalita Thera’s view of Prasangavada.
Bhavaviveka Thera was a contemporary to Buddhapalita Thera and his commentary to
Madhyamaka karika was Prajnapradipa.
Bhavaviveka (Bhavya) (500-578) was one of the 1st Buddhist Logician to employ the
‘formal syllogism’ of Indian logic in expounding
Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamaka Karika
entitled the Prajnapradipa.
According to one source, Bhavaviveka was born to the East of Magadha in India of
Ksatriya family. He was ordained by Nagarjuna. Another source claims that
in South India. After becoming a monk he travelled to Madhya-desa(Middle-India) and
received the teachings on the Mahayana
sutras and Nagarjuna texts from Acarya
Sanharakhita. After that he returned to Southern India and became a head of 50
temples and taught extensively.
Syllogistic argument. During that time the teachers of Vijnanavada Dingnaga and Dharmakirti developed Buddhist logic by criticizing five members of syllogism
(Tarkika sanvakya) (panca avayava vakya)
Brahmanic logic – Five members. Buddhists
maintained only three members only.
1. Pratijna = Thesis = That mountain has fire
2. Hetu = Reason = There is a smoke
3. Drsthanta = Example = Similar to Kitchen
4. Upanaya = Application = It has smoke
5. Nigamana = conclusion = It has fire
1.Pratijna – Thesis – That mountain has fire.
2.Hetu = Reason = Mountain has smoke.
3. Dristhanta = Example = Similar to kitchen
Bhavaviveka Thera was an expert on this Buddhist logic. Therefore he was of the
view that it is not only by rejecting others
These arguments are valied to the whole of
Madhyamaka Karika but this particular Prasangika and Svatantrika stands were pointed out at the very beginning of the
interpretations of the 1st stanza of Madhyamaka Karika
Na dvabhyam napyahetutah
Uppanna jatu vidyante
BhavaH Kvacana Keca
(Things are not bone itself, not by others,
not by both itself, not without a cause).
presents long comment on the 1st sloka of
the Madhyamaka karika. By that he
Bhavaviveka. Candrakirti says the Prasangika system is the proper system to realize the Madhyamaka methodology. This has become a major system of interpritation
in Tibet and Mongolia. Shantideva pada who
wrote Bodhicaryavatara and Siksasamuccaya
was also a follower of Prasangika system approved
Madhyamaka does not have to interpret anything by a proposition or to put forward examples to prove anything. His only work
is to refute the opponent’s view by his own
facts. Candrakirti thera tells us that Buddhapalita thera put forward this Prasangika interpretation.
teachers. Tatvasangraha was the first book of Santaraksita. This is an extensive analysis of Madhyamaka philosophy and Buddhist thought. This book is similar to Mula Madhyamaka karika of Nagarjuna. As same as the Madhyamaka Karika in Tatvasamgraha also chapters have been
theory (Ksanavada) and self-characteristic of
Sautrantika. Therefore Tibetan teachers
identification these two teachers as Sautrantika-Vijanavadi-Madhyamaka is
justifiable. Kamalasila thera has written