Equipments Design PO/Styrene Plant. Done By: Salem Alkanaimsh. Prof. M. Fahim Eng. Yousef Ismael. Agenda. Reactor Design. Heat Exchangers Design. Distillation Columns Design. Pumps Design. Compressors Design. Reactor Design. Chemical reactors are the heart of chemical processes.
Prof. M. Fahim
Eng. Yousef Ismael
Finding The rate equation:
Thickness of Reactor
Diameter and length of reactor
t: thickness of reactor.
P: internal pressure .
ri: radius of the vessel .
Ej: joint efficiency .
S: stress of carbon steal .
Cc: corrosion allowance
Log mean Temperature
T1 is temperature of inlet hot stream. (oC)
T2 is the temperature of outlet hot stream. (oC)
.t1 is the temperature of inlet cold stream. (oC)
.t2 is the temperature of outlet cold stream. (oC).
Number of tubes
Heat Transfer Area
Shell and Bundle diameter
Nt is the number of tubes.
K1, n1 are constants.
Db is the bundle diameter (mm)
Ds is the shell diameter. (mm)
Tube Side Heat Transfer Coefficient
Shell side heat Transfer Coefficient
is the density of fluid (kg/m3).
is the thermal conductivity (W/m.C).
is specific heat (kJ/kg.k).
Re is the Reynolds number.
Pr is the Prandtl number.
Nu is the Nusselt number.
is the convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m2.C).
.pt is the tube pitch (mm).
.lB is the baffle spacing (mm).
As is the cross flow area (m2)
us is the velocity (m/s).
de is the equivalent diameter for triangular arrangement (mm).
jh is the heat transfer factor
hs is the convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m2.C).
Overall Heat Transfer coefficient
Shell Side Pressure Drop
Tube side pressure Drop
Where; D is the shell diameter in m
Rj is internal radius in (in).
P is the operating pressure in psi
S is the working stress (psi).
E is the joint efficiency
Down Comer Area.
Hole area( 0.1 of Active area).
Weir height ( 40~100)mm.
Hole diameter (10 mm).
Plate Thickness (10~30 mm).
Turn down Percentage (70%)
Down comer back up is less than half ( plate thickness+ weir height).
Calculated percentage flooding equal to the assumed one.
Residence time exceeds 3 secs.Distillation Column Design.
Actual Number of trays
Where; FLV is the vapor-liquid flow factor.
is the density in (kg/m3).
is the surface tension in (mN/m).
uf is the velocity of vapor in (m/s).
D is the column diameter (m).
Provisional Plate design
Liquid Flow Pattern
Down Comer Back up
Estimating the Thickness
Number of holes
Actual Head of pump
Water horse Power
Reduce temperature and work required.
Efficiency =0.8 Isentropic Compression