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Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity. G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter 24. Key Concepts. Economic and ecological importance. Effects of human activities. Protecting and sustaining aquatic diversity. Protecting and sustaining fisheries.

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Sustaining aquatic biodiversity
Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity

G. Tyler Miller’s

Living in the Environment

13th Edition

Chapter 24


Key concepts
Key Concepts

  • Economic and ecological importance

  • Effects of human activities

  • Protecting and sustaining aquatic diversity

  • Protecting and sustaining fisheries

  • Protecting and restoring wetlands


Case study a biological roller coaster ride in lake victoria
Case Study: A Biological Roller Coaster Ride in Lake Victoria

Lake Victoria has lost its endemic fish species to large introduced predatory fish.


A biological roller coaster ride in lake victoria
A Biological Roller Coaster Ride in Lake Victoria Victoria

Reasons for Lake Victoria’s loss of biodiversity:

Introduction of Nile perch.

Loss of native cichlid species

Lake experienced algal blooms from nutrient runoff.

Invasion of water hyacinth has blocked sunlight and deprived oxygen.

Nile perch is in decline because it has eaten its own food supply.


Aquatic biodiversity
AQUATIC BIODIVERSITY Victoria

We know fairly little about the biodiversity of the world’s marine and freshwater systems.

The world’s marine and freshwater systems provide important ecological and economic services.


The importance of aquatic biodiversity
The Importance of Aquatic Biodiversity Victoria

The most biologically diverse habitats include:

Coral reefs

Estuaries

Deep ocean floor

Highest near the coast

25,000 known fish species


The importance of aquatic biodiversity ecological and economic
The Importance of Aquatic Biodiversity: VictoriaEcological and Economic

Food Items

6% of total protein; 16% of animal protein

Many Chemicals

Cosmetics

from seaweed

Medicines and Drugs

Antibiotics and anticancer drug, adhesives, bone reconstructive materials

seaweed, sponges, mollusks, coral barnacles, and other fish


Apes bell ringer 11 28 2012
APES Bell Ringer 11/28/2012 Victoria

  • What are 4 human impacts on aquatic biodiversity?


Human impacts on aquatic biodiversity
Human Impacts on Aquatic Biodiversity Victoria

Species loss and endangerment

Marine habitat loss and degradation

Freshwater habitat loss and degradation

Overfishing

Nonnative species

Pollution and global warming


Species loss and endangerment
Species Loss and Endangerment Victoria

Overfishing

Habitat destruction

Pollution

Freshwater species at greater risk

Mussels, crayfish, amphibians, fish


Marine habitat loss and degradation
Marine Habitat Loss and Degradation Victoria

53% of coastal wetlands in US have disappeared

Agriculture

Coastal development

58% of world’s coral reefs are threatened

Coastal development

Pollution

Warmer ocean temperatures

Two-thirds of US estuaries are at risk from pollution

35% of world’s mangroves have disappeared


Freshwater habitat loss and degradation
Freshwater Habitat Loss and Degradation Victoria

The world has lost more than half of its inland wetlands

Agricultural and urban development

60% of the world’s larger rivers are fragmented by dams, diversions, and canals

Flood control levees and dikes

Alter and destroy aquatic habitats

Disconnect rivers from their floodplains

Eliminate wetlands and backwaters (spawning areas)


Overfishing
Overfishing Victoria

75% of the world’s 200 commercially valuable marine fish species are overfished

Overfishing leads to commercial extinction

Depletions and extinction of species unintentionally caught as bycatch


Non native species
Non-native Species Victoria

Deliberate or accidental introduction into coastal waters, lakes and wetlands

purple loosestrife

Asian swamp eel

zebra mussle

Displace or cause extinction of native species

68% of fish extinctions


Pollution and global warming
Pollution and Global Warming Victoria

Major pollution threats

Oil

Acid deposition

Plant nutrients

Toxic chemicals

Coastal development

Sediment and soil erosion

Global warming could

alter migration and feeding patterns

increase ocean temperature

raise sea levels

  • 44% comes from runoff from developed coastal areas


Protecting and sustaining marine biodiversity
PROTECTING AND SUSTAINING MARINE BIODIVERSITY Victoria

Six of the world’s seven major turtle species are threatened or endangered because o human activities.

Figure 12-4


Protect endangered and threatened species
Protect endangered and threatened species Victoria

Example: Sea turtle

Turtle extrusion devices (TEDs)

Olive ridley

Australian

flatback

Loggerhead

Hawksbill

Black turtle

Green turtle

Leatherback

Kemp's Ridley


Shrimp trawler Victoria

Turtle Extrusion Device

Area enlarged right


Case study the florida manatee and water hyacinths
Case Study: The Florida Manatee and Water Hyacinths Victoria

Manatee can eat unwanted Water Hyacinths.

Endangered due to:

Habitat loss.

Entanglement from fishing lines and nets.

Hit by speed boats.

Stress from cold.

Low reproductive rate


Case study commercial whaling
Case Study: Commercial Whaling Victoria

After many of the world’s whale species were over-harvested, commercial whaling was banned in 1960, but the ban may be overturned.


Commercial whaling
Commercial Whaling Victoria

Despite ban, Japan, Norway, and Iceland kill about 1,300 whales of certain species for “scientific purposes”.

Although meat is still sold commercially.


Key concepts1
Key Concepts Victoria

  • Economic and ecological importance

  • Effects of human activities

  • Protecting and sustaining aquatic diversity

  • Protecting and sustaining fisheries

  • Protecting and restoring wetlands


Protecting and sustaining marine biodiversity1
Protecting and Sustaining Marine Biodiversity Victoria

Identifying and protecting endangered and threatened species

Sea turtles

Turtle extrusion devices (TEDs)

National and International laws and treaties

CITES - Convention on International Trade and Endangered Species

Global Treaty on Migratory Species

US Marine Mammal Protection Act

US Endangered Species Act

US Whale Conservation and Protection Act

International Convention on Biological Diversity


Protecting and sustaining marine biodiversity2
Protecting and Sustaining Marine Biodiversity Victoria

Establish marine protected areas

Coastal nations have sovereignty over waters and seabeds up to 12 miles offshore

Jurisdiction over their Exclusive Economic Zone extends 200 miles offshore

Integrated coastal management

community based attempt to develop and use coastal resources sustainably


Protecting and sustaining marine biodiversity3
Protecting and Sustaining Marine Biodiversity Victoria

Regulating and preventing ocean pollution

Sustaining management of marine fisheries


Managing and sustaining the world s marine fisheries
Managing and Sustaining the World’s Marine Fisheries Victoria

Fishery regulation

Set, monitor, and enforce fishery catch limits below estimated MSY (maximum sustained yield)

Divide up fishing quotas

Require selective gear

Improve monitoring and enforcement

Economic approached

Reduce or eliminate subsidies

Impose fees for harvesting fish and shellfish from public managed offshore waters

Certify sustainable fisheries


Managing and sustaining the world s marine fisheries1
Managing and Sustaining the World’s Marine Fisheries Victoria

Bycatch reduction

Wider mesh fish nets

Extrusion devices

Observers on boats

Multiple species licensing

Laws prohibiting throwing edible and marketable fish back to sea


Managing and sustaining the world s marine fisheries2
Managing and Sustaining the World’s Marine Fisheries Victoria

Protected areas

Establish no-fishing marine areas

Protect marine habitats that are in good condition and disregard potentially hopeless cases

Strengthen commitment to marine biodiversity protection

Non-native invasions

Kill organisms in ship ballast water

Develop filters and traps

Require ships to dump ballast water beyond 200 mile limit


Managing and sustaining the world s marine fisheries3
Managing and Sustaining the World’s Marine Fisheries Victoria

Consumer information

Use labeling to identify fish that have been harvested sustainably

Aquaculture

Restrict location of fish farms to reduce loss of mangrove forests

Enact and enforce stricter pollution regulations

Increase productions of herbivorous aquaculture fish species


Protecting sustaining and restoring wetlands
Protecting, Sustaining, and Restoring Wetlands Victoria

Regulations

federal permit required

Mitigation banking

allows destruction of existing wetlands if an equal area of they same type of wetland is created or restored

Land use planning

steer agriculture and mining away from wetlands

Wetland restoration

often has limited success

Control of invasive species

purple loosestrife


Restoring the florida everglades
Restoring the Florida Everglades Victoria

Natural flow of the Everglades has been diverted or disrupted.

Farmers planted vast agricultural land to sugarcane and vegetables.

Established Everglades National Park. Became the most endangered park.

Massive plumbing and land development projects cut off water flow


Restoring the florida everglades1
Restoring the Florida Everglades Victoria

1990 began the world’s largest ecological restoration project.

restore he curving flow of more than half of the Kissimmee River.

remove 400 km of canals and levees

create artificial marshes in previous farmland

add land adjacent to Everglades National Park

create network of artificial marshes

create 18 large reservoirs

capture much of the water flowing out to sea and return it to the Everglades



Protecting sustaining and restoring lakes
Protecting, Sustaining, and Restoring Lakes Victoria

Zebra mussel

  • Pollution

  • Cultural eutrophication

  • Water levels

  • Invasive species


Protecting sustaining and restoring rivers
Protecting, Sustaining, and Restoring Rivers Victoria

  • Pollution

  • Disruption of water flow

  • Loss of biodiversity

  • Invasive

    species


Protecting sustaining and restoring rivers1
Protecting, Sustaining, and Restoring Rivers Victoria

  • Disruption of water flow

    • 119 dams,

    • 19 hydroelectric dams

    • Salmon population dropped 94%

  • Salmon Restoration Project

    • upstream hatcheries

    • fish ladders

    • transport juveniles around dams

    • turning off turbines


Protecting sustaining and restoring lakes and rivers
PROTECTING, SUSTAINING, AND RESTORING LAKES AND RIVERS Victoria

We can help sustain freshwater fisheries by building and protecting populations of desirable species, preventing over-fishing, and decreasing populations of less desirable species.

A federal law helps protect a tiny fraction of U.S. wild and scenic rivers from dams and other forms of development.

National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (1968).


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