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Wireless Agent-based. Semantic Web Interaction. Heikki Helin <[email protected]> Principal Researcher, PhD Emerging Technologies and Innovations, TeliaSonera Finland. Presentation Outline. About TeliaSonera Motivation In which field we are playing…

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Semantic web interaction

Wireless Agent-based

Semantic Web Interaction

Heikki Helin <[email protected]>

Principal Researcher, PhD

Emerging Technologies and Innovations, TeliaSonera Finland


Presentation outline

Presentation Outline

  • About TeliaSonera

  • Motivation

    • In which field we are playing…

    • What we are trying to achieve…

  • Agent-based architecture for nomadic environments

    • Agents architecture for such environments

    • Communication framework for wireless communication

    • Ontologies for nomadic environments

  • On-going (or soon-to-be-started) research projects

    • National, EU/FP6

  • Summary

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Teliasonera

TeliaSonera

The Nordic and Baltic leader in telecommunications

  • The merger between Telia and Sonera became a reality on December 9, 2002

  • Listed on the Stockholm Exchange, the Helsinki Exchange and Nasdaq Stock Market in the USA

  • Net sales (pro forma) in 2003 amounted to SEK 81,772 million (EUR 9,010 million)

  • The number of employees was 26,000 on December 31, 2003

    • R&D personnel : ~1000

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


The markets of teliasonera international

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The markets of TeliaSonera International

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Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Motivation

Motivation

  • New wireless Internet services for our mobile (and fixed) customers

    • Not only ”new services”, but also enhance ”old ones” to give better user experience

  • And do that

    • faster,

    • easier,

    • cheaper, ...

=> To attract new customers, but more importantly: keep the old

customers (and at the same time do some academic research)

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Background

Background

  • Multi-agent system implementing a middleware providing (agent-based) applications with tools for adaptation in a nomadic environment

  • Nomadic environments enable new ways to access services

     anywhere, at any time, and using any device

  • Challenges that need to be addressed:

    • Varying QoS of the wireless networks

    • Limitations of mobile devices

    • Contextual variability (location, time, user preferences, ...)

  • Adaptation to environment is the key issue

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Mobile wireless environment

Mobile/Wireless Environment

  • Typical characteristics

    • Low throughput, long delays, unreliable, ...

      • Variability

    • Disconnected mode of operation is the most common state

    • Different kind of (wireless) networks

  • Seamless roaming will be important in the future

  • Actors (agents) in nomadic environments should be aware of these issues

    • Context-awareness (not only location)

  • Currently we are mainly considering long thin networks

    • GSM, HSCSD, GPRS, UMTS, ...

    • But not excluding WLANs, BT, LAN, xDSL, ...

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Agents in nomadic environments

Agents in Nomadic Environments

  • Suitable for complex environments

    • Internet is a complex environment...

    • Wireless Internet is even more complex...

    • Invisible Internet...

Ambient networks

Semantic Web

QoS

Peer-to-peer

Intelligent P2P

Pervasive Computing

Ubiquitous Computing

Ontologies

Ad hoc networks

Distributed Artificial Intelligence

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Fipa agent platform

FIPA Agent Platform

DF = Directory Facilitator

AMS = Agent Management System

ACC = Agent Communication Channel

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Fipa nomadic application support

(FIPA) Nomadic Application Support

Knowlegde

Sharing

Controlling & monitoring

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Fipa nomadic application support1

(FIPA) Nomadic Application Support

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Semantic web interaction

Agent Communication Wireless World

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Layered model of agent communication

Layered model of agent communication

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Message transport

Message Transport

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Message transport1

Message Transport

  • How messages are transferred between agents

  • Desiderata

    • Reliability

    • Efficiency

    • Dynamic adaptation

  • Issues

    • Performance problems

    • Terminal mobility

    • Thin clients

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Mtp results 1 1 9600bps 300ms

MTP Results – 1+1; 9600bps (300ms)

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Mtp results 1 1 115200bps 300ms

MTP Results – 1+1; 115200bps (300ms)

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Message envelope

Message Envelope

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Message envelope1

Message Envelope

  • FIPA ”specific” layer

  • Defines how messages are delivered

    • independent of message transport protocols

  • Encoding options

    • XML, Bit-efficient, IIOP/IDL, Binary-XML, Java Objects, …

  • Bit-efficient encoding similar to bit-efficient ACL

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Message envelope2

Message Envelope

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Acl layer

ACL Layer

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Acl encoding

ACL Encoding

  • Options

    • String (s-expression), XML, Bit-efficient

    • Binary-XML (w/ special encoding tokens), Java Objects

  • Bit-Efficient encoding is the most efficient

    • Space-efficient

      • ...by definition

    • Time-efficient

      • much faster

        • nice for every application; not only for wireless

        • necessity for

          • high performance applications

          • highly utilized servers

      • simple parser  appropriate for thin clients

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Acl encoding request conversation

ACL Encoding (request conversation)

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Acl encoding1

ACL Encoding

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Content language layer

Content Language Layer

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Content languages

Content Languages

  • FIPA-SL

    • All-purpose content language

    • S-expression (w/ deflate), XML, Binary-XML (w/ special tokens)

  • FIPA-CCL

    • Language for constraint satisfaction problems

    • XML & Binary-XML

  • Results similar to those of message envelope and ACL

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Conversation layer

Conversation Layer

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Conversation layer1

Conversation Layer

  • Optimizing/modifying existing conversation protocols?

  • Developing new conversation protocols?

  • Selecting conversation protocol based on current environment

    • low bandwidth  simple protocol

       not so good end result

    • more bandwidth  more complicated protocol

       better end result

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Semantic web interaction

Ontologies in Wireless World

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Ontologies

Ontologies

  • An ontology is an explicit description of a domain:

    • Concepts

      • “Wireless network”, “GSM”, “GPRS”, …

    • Properties and attributes of concepts

      • Each “Network” will have “Operator”, “Location”, “Properties”, …

      • Every “IEEE802.11a” is a “WLAN”

    • Constraints on properties and attributes

      • The name of an Operator is a string

      • GSM network code consist of CountryCode and NetworkID

    • Individuals (often, but not always)

      • The GSM network operated by TeliaSonera in Finland

  • An ontology defines

    • a common vocabulary

    • a shared understanding

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Can t we just use xml

Can’t we just use XML?

For machines, a typical web page looks like this:

  • XML is not enough

    • Ontological modeling primitives missing

  • RDF/RDFS is better, but

    • Only a weak semantic interpretation

    • No inference model

  • OWL (Web Ontology Language)

    • Extends RDFS

    • Additional vocabulary along with a formal semantics

    • More vocabulary for describing properties and classes:

    • Relations between classes (e.g. disjointness)

    • Cardinality (e.g. "exactly one")

    • Equality

    • Richer typing of properties

    • Characteristics of properties (e.g. symmetry)

    • Enumerated classes

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Xml helps

XML Helps...

XML allows “meaningful tags” to be added to parts of the text

<name>

  • XML is not enough

    • Ontological modeling primitives missing

      </name>

      <address>

  • RDF/RDFS is better, but

    • Only a weak semantic interpretation

    • No inference model

      </address>

      <cv>

  • OWL (Web Ontology Language)

    • Extends RDFS

    • Additional vocabulary along with a formal semantics

    • More vocabulary for describing properties and classes:

    • Relations between classes (e.g. disjointness)

    • Cardinality (e.g. "exactly one")

    • Equality

    • Richer typing of properties

    • Characteristics of properties (e.g. symmetry)

    • Enumerated classes

      </cv>

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Xml machine accessible meaning

XML ≠ Machine Accessible Meaning

To machines, the tags looks like this…

<name>

  • XML is not enough

    • Ontological modeling primitives missing

      </name>

      <address>

  • RDF/RDFS is better, but

    • Only a weak semantic interpretation

    • No inference model

      </address>

      <cv>

  • OWL (Web Ontology Language)

    • Extends RDFS

    • Additional vocabulary along with a formal semantics

    • More vocabulary for describing properties and classes:

    • Relations between classes (e.g. disjointness)

    • Cardinality (e.g. "exactly one")

    • Equality

    • Richer typing of properties

    • Characteristics of properties (e.g. symmetry)

    • Enumerated classes

      </cv>

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Web ontology languages

Web Ontology Languages

  • Ontologies have been active research area for a long time

  • Web ontology languages

    • Provide ”web-friendly” representation language

    • Typically based on RDF Schema

  • OWL is currently W3C Recommendation

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Web ontology languages cont

Web Ontology Languages (cont.)

  • XML is not enough

    • Ontological modeling primitives missing

  • RDF/RDFS is better, but

    • Only a weak semantic interpretation

    • No inference model

  • OWL (Web Ontology Language)

    • Extends RDFS

      • Additional vocabulary along with a formal semantics

      • More vocabulary for describing properties and classes:

        • Relations between classes (e.g. disjointness)

        • Cardinality (e.g. "exactly one")

        • Equality

        • Richer typing of properties

        • Characteristics of properties (e.g. symmetry)

        • Enumerated classes

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Need for ontologies in wireless world

Need for Ontologies in Wireless World

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Wireless network ontology motivation

Wireless Network Ontology - Motivation

  • Machine-readable (& understandable) descriptions of networks

    • Currently available only for humans

  • 3rd party service providers

    • ”Available networks at Gent?”

    • ”Available networks at this Hotel?”

  • Future applications

    • Context-aware

      • ”Available networks near here?”

      • “Best available network?”

      • ”Available networks near my friend?”

    • Any application requiring information about (wireless) networks or their properties

      • Almost all wireless world applications?

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Wireless network ontology overview

Wireless Network Ontology – Overview

  • Core Concepts

    • Network -> Wireless Network -> GSM Network -> ...

    • Operator

    • (Location)

    • ...

  • QoS Concepts

    • Throughput, delay, rtt, …

  • Services

    • GSM Services

      • Supplementary services, Tele services, …

    • WLAN Services

    • ...

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Wireless network ontology core concepts

Wireless Network Ontology – Core Concepts

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Wireless network ontology services

Wireless Network Ontology – Services

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Wireless network ontology qos concepts

Wireless Network Ontology – QoS Concepts

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Semantic web interaction

Related Projects @ TeliaSonera

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Related projects @ teliasonera

Related projects @ TeliaSonera

  • EU/FP6 projects

    • Ambient Networks (IP), Magnet (IP)

    • CASCOM (Strep)

  • National projects

    • CAPNET

    • Fuego Core

    • Intelligent Web Services

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Cascom overview

CASCOM – Overview

Context-Aware Business Application Service Co-ordination In Mobile Computing Environments

  • FP6/2 Strep project

    • 414 PM/3 years

    • 8 partners

  • Project goal:

    • Develop, implement, validate, and trial of

    • Agent-based service coordination infrastructure for

    • Innovative semantic Web service discovery, composition, execution

    • Across mobile and fixed Peer-To-Peer service networks

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Cascom main s t innovations

CASCOM – Main S&T Innovations

  • Generic Service Agent Architecture and Prototype Demonstrator

    • CASCOM Service Coordination Means

      • Declarative Service Description

      • Flexible Service Matching

      • Dynamic Service Composition

      • Secure Service Execution & Monitoring

    • CASCOM Intelligent Service Agents

      • Service Agent Platform for Nomadic Computing and Ad-Hoc P2P Communication

      • Context-Aware Service Provisioning

      • Dynamic Service Agent Coalitions

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Cascom use case scenario

CASCOM – Use Case Scenario

  • Ad-Hoc Emergency Medical Care and Transport

  • Medical information

  • Patient transport

  • Insurance coverage

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Intelligent web services iwebs

Intelligent Web Services (IWebS)

  • Semantic yellow page services

    • How the user finds correct service(s)?

    • How the service provider advertises the service it provides?

  • Dynamic content

  • Service composition

  • Support for different terminals

    • Desktop, mobile, ...

  • http://www.cs.helsinki.fi/group/iwebs/

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Iwebs sample scenario

IWebS – Sample Scenario

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


Summary

Summary

  • Nomadic environments introduce challenges, such as varying QoS, variations and limitations of the mobile devices, as compared to desktop environments

    • Device independence and adaptation are key issues when designing and implementing services for such environments

  • Agent architecture with efficient communication

  • Ontologies

    • (Wireless) networks

    • QoS

    • Other domains need conceptualization as well

      • Services

      • Users

        • Preferences, etc.

      • Devices

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


More information

More information

  • Heikki Helin and Mikko Laukkanen: Performance Analysis of Software Agent Communication in Slow Wireless Networks. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN'02), October 2002

  • Heikki Helin and Mikko Laukkanen: Wireless Network Ontology. In WWRF#9, July 2003

  • Heikki Helin: Supporting Nomadic Agent-based Applications in FIPA Agent Architecture. PhD Thesis. University of Helsinki, Finland. February 2003.

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction


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