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Wireless Agent-based. Semantic Web Interaction. Heikki Helin <[email protected]> Principal Researcher, PhD Emerging Technologies and Innovations, TeliaSonera Finland. Presentation Outline. About TeliaSonera Motivation In which field we are playing…

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semantic web interaction

Wireless Agent-based

Semantic Web Interaction

Heikki Helin <[email protected]>

Principal Researcher, PhD

Emerging Technologies and Innovations, TeliaSonera Finland

presentation outline
Presentation Outline
  • About TeliaSonera
  • Motivation
    • In which field we are playing…
    • What we are trying to achieve…
  • Agent-based architecture for nomadic environments
    • Agents architecture for such environments
    • Communication framework for wireless communication
    • Ontologies for nomadic environments
  • On-going (or soon-to-be-started) research projects
    • National, EU/FP6
  • Summary

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

teliasonera
TeliaSonera

The Nordic and Baltic leader in telecommunications

  • The merger between Telia and Sonera became a reality on December 9, 2002
  • Listed on the Stockholm Exchange, the Helsinki Exchange and Nasdaq Stock Market in the USA
  • Net sales (pro forma) in 2003 amounted to SEK 81,772 million (EUR 9,010 million)
  • The number of employees was 26,000 on December 31, 2003
    • R&D personnel : ~1000

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

the markets of teliasonera international

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The markets of TeliaSonera International

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Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

motivation
Motivation
  • New wireless Internet services for our mobile (and fixed) customers
    • Not only ”new services”, but also enhance ”old ones” to give better user experience
  • And do that
    • faster,
    • easier,
    • cheaper, ...

=> To attract new customers, but more importantly: keep the old

customers (and at the same time do some academic research)

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

background
Background
  • Multi-agent system implementing a middleware providing (agent-based) applications with tools for adaptation in a nomadic environment
  • Nomadic environments enable new ways to access services

 anywhere, at any time, and using any device

  • Challenges that need to be addressed:
    • Varying QoS of the wireless networks
    • Limitations of mobile devices
    • Contextual variability (location, time, user preferences, ...)
  • Adaptation to environment is the key issue

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

mobile wireless environment
Mobile/Wireless Environment
  • Typical characteristics
    • Low throughput, long delays, unreliable, ...
      • Variability
    • Disconnected mode of operation is the most common state
    • Different kind of (wireless) networks
  • Seamless roaming will be important in the future
  • Actors (agents) in nomadic environments should be aware of these issues
    • Context-awareness (not only location)
  • Currently we are mainly considering long thin networks
    • GSM, HSCSD, GPRS, UMTS, ...
    • But not excluding WLANs, BT, LAN, xDSL, ...

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

agents in nomadic environments
Agents in Nomadic Environments
  • Suitable for complex environments
    • Internet is a complex environment...
    • Wireless Internet is even more complex...
    • Invisible Internet...

Ambient networks

Semantic Web

QoS

Peer-to-peer

Intelligent P2P

Pervasive Computing

Ubiquitous Computing

Ontologies

Ad hoc networks

Distributed Artificial Intelligence

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

fipa agent platform
FIPA Agent Platform

DF = Directory Facilitator

AMS = Agent Management System

ACC = Agent Communication Channel

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

fipa nomadic application support
(FIPA) Nomadic Application Support

Knowlegde

Sharing

Controlling & monitoring

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

fipa nomadic application support1
(FIPA) Nomadic Application Support

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

slide12

Agent Communication Wireless World

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

layered model of agent communication
Layered model of agent communication

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

message transport
Message Transport

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

message transport1
Message Transport
  • How messages are transferred between agents
  • Desiderata
    • Reliability
    • Efficiency
    • Dynamic adaptation
  • Issues
    • Performance problems
    • Terminal mobility
    • Thin clients

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

mtp results 1 1 9600bps 300ms
MTP Results – 1+1; 9600bps (300ms)

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

mtp results 1 1 115200bps 300ms
MTP Results – 1+1; 115200bps (300ms)

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

message envelope
Message Envelope

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

message envelope1
Message Envelope
  • FIPA ”specific” layer
  • Defines how messages are delivered
    • independent of message transport protocols
  • Encoding options
    • XML, Bit-efficient, IIOP/IDL, Binary-XML, Java Objects, …
  • Bit-efficient encoding similar to bit-efficient ACL

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

message envelope2
Message Envelope

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

acl layer
ACL Layer

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

acl encoding
ACL Encoding
  • Options
    • String (s-expression), XML, Bit-efficient
    • Binary-XML (w/ special encoding tokens), Java Objects
  • Bit-Efficient encoding is the most efficient
    • Space-efficient
      • ...by definition
    • Time-efficient
      • much faster
        • nice for every application; not only for wireless
        • necessity for
          • high performance applications
          • highly utilized servers
      • simple parser  appropriate for thin clients

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

acl encoding request conversation
ACL Encoding (request conversation)

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

acl encoding1
ACL Encoding

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

content language layer
Content Language Layer

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

content languages
Content Languages
  • FIPA-SL
    • All-purpose content language
    • S-expression (w/ deflate), XML, Binary-XML (w/ special tokens)
  • FIPA-CCL
    • Language for constraint satisfaction problems
    • XML & Binary-XML
  • Results similar to those of message envelope and ACL

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

conversation layer
Conversation Layer

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

conversation layer1
Conversation Layer
  • Optimizing/modifying existing conversation protocols?
  • Developing new conversation protocols?
  • Selecting conversation protocol based on current environment
    • low bandwidth  simple protocol

 not so good end result

    • more bandwidth  more complicated protocol

 better end result

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

slide29

Ontologies in Wireless World

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

ontologies
Ontologies
  • An ontology is an explicit description of a domain:
    • Concepts
      • “Wireless network”, “GSM”, “GPRS”, …
    • Properties and attributes of concepts
      • Each “Network” will have “Operator”, “Location”, “Properties”, …
      • Every “IEEE802.11a” is a “WLAN”
    • Constraints on properties and attributes
      • The name of an Operator is a string
      • GSM network code consist of CountryCode and NetworkID
    • Individuals (often, but not always)
      • The GSM network operated by TeliaSonera in Finland
  • An ontology defines
    • a common vocabulary
    • a shared understanding

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

can t we just use xml
Can’t we just use XML?

For machines, a typical web page looks like this:

  • XML is not enough
    • Ontological modeling primitives missing
  • RDF/RDFS is better, but
    • Only a weak semantic interpretation
    • No inference model
  • OWL (Web Ontology Language)
    • Extends RDFS
    • Additional vocabulary along with a formal semantics
    • More vocabulary for describing properties and classes:
    • Relations between classes (e.g. disjointness)
    • Cardinality (e.g. "exactly one")
    • Equality
    • Richer typing of properties
    • Characteristics of properties (e.g. symmetry)
    • Enumerated classes

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

xml helps
XML Helps...

XML allows “meaningful tags” to be added to parts of the text

<name>

  • XML is not enough
    • Ontological modeling primitives missing

</name>

<address>

  • RDF/RDFS is better, but
    • Only a weak semantic interpretation
    • No inference model

</address>

<cv>

  • OWL (Web Ontology Language)
    • Extends RDFS
    • Additional vocabulary along with a formal semantics
    • More vocabulary for describing properties and classes:
    • Relations between classes (e.g. disjointness)
    • Cardinality (e.g. "exactly one")
    • Equality
    • Richer typing of properties
    • Characteristics of properties (e.g. symmetry)
    • Enumerated classes

</cv>

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

xml machine accessible meaning
XML ≠ Machine Accessible Meaning

To machines, the tags looks like this…

<name>

  • XML is not enough
    • Ontological modeling primitives missing

</name>

<address>

  • RDF/RDFS is better, but
    • Only a weak semantic interpretation
    • No inference model

</address>

<cv>

  • OWL (Web Ontology Language)
    • Extends RDFS
    • Additional vocabulary along with a formal semantics
    • More vocabulary for describing properties and classes:
    • Relations between classes (e.g. disjointness)
    • Cardinality (e.g. "exactly one")
    • Equality
    • Richer typing of properties
    • Characteristics of properties (e.g. symmetry)
    • Enumerated classes

</cv>

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

web ontology languages
Web Ontology Languages
  • Ontologies have been active research area for a long time
  • Web ontology languages
    • Provide ”web-friendly” representation language
    • Typically based on RDF Schema
  • OWL is currently W3C Recommendation

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

web ontology languages cont
Web Ontology Languages (cont.)
  • XML is not enough
    • Ontological modeling primitives missing
  • RDF/RDFS is better, but
    • Only a weak semantic interpretation
    • No inference model
  • OWL (Web Ontology Language)
    • Extends RDFS
      • Additional vocabulary along with a formal semantics
      • More vocabulary for describing properties and classes:
        • Relations between classes (e.g. disjointness)
        • Cardinality (e.g. "exactly one")
        • Equality
        • Richer typing of properties
        • Characteristics of properties (e.g. symmetry)
        • Enumerated classes

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

need for ontologies in wireless world
Need for Ontologies in Wireless World

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

wireless network ontology motivation
Wireless Network Ontology - Motivation
  • Machine-readable (& understandable) descriptions of networks
    • Currently available only for humans
  • 3rd party service providers
    • ”Available networks at Gent?”
    • ”Available networks at this Hotel?”
  • Future applications
    • Context-aware
      • ”Available networks near here?”
      • “Best available network?”
      • ”Available networks near my friend?”
    • Any application requiring information about (wireless) networks or their properties
      • Almost all wireless world applications?

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

wireless network ontology overview
Wireless Network Ontology – Overview
  • Core Concepts
    • Network -> Wireless Network -> GSM Network -> ...
    • Operator
    • (Location)
    • ...
  • QoS Concepts
    • Throughput, delay, rtt, …
  • Services
    • GSM Services
      • Supplementary services, Tele services, …
    • WLAN Services
    • ...

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

wireless network ontology core concepts
Wireless Network Ontology – Core Concepts

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

wireless network ontology services
Wireless Network Ontology – Services

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

wireless network ontology qos concepts
Wireless Network Ontology – QoS Concepts

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

slide42

Related Projects @ TeliaSonera

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

related projects @ teliasonera
Related projects @ TeliaSonera
  • EU/FP6 projects
    • Ambient Networks (IP), Magnet (IP)
    • CASCOM (Strep)
  • National projects
    • CAPNET
    • Fuego Core
    • Intelligent Web Services

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

cascom overview
CASCOM – Overview

Context-Aware Business Application Service Co-ordination In Mobile Computing Environments

  • FP6/2 Strep project
    • 414 PM/3 years
    • 8 partners
  • Project goal:
    • Develop, implement, validate, and trial of
    • Agent-based service coordination infrastructure for
    • Innovative semantic Web service discovery, composition, execution
    • Across mobile and fixed Peer-To-Peer service networks

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

cascom main s t innovations
CASCOM – Main S&T Innovations
  • Generic Service Agent Architecture and Prototype Demonstrator
    • CASCOM Service Coordination Means
      • Declarative Service Description
      • Flexible Service Matching
      • Dynamic Service Composition
      • Secure Service Execution & Monitoring
    • CASCOM Intelligent Service Agents
      • Service Agent Platform for Nomadic Computing and Ad-Hoc P2P Communication
      • Context-Aware Service Provisioning
      • Dynamic Service Agent Coalitions

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

cascom use case scenario
CASCOM – Use Case Scenario
  • Ad-Hoc Emergency Medical Care and Transport
  • Medical information
  • Patient transport
  • Insurance coverage

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

intelligent web services iwebs
Intelligent Web Services (IWebS)
  • Semantic yellow page services
    • How the user finds correct service(s)?
    • How the service provider advertises the service it provides?
  • Dynamic content
  • Service composition
  • Support for different terminals
    • Desktop, mobile, ...
  • http://www.cs.helsinki.fi/group/iwebs/

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

iwebs sample scenario
IWebS – Sample Scenario

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

summary
Summary
  • Nomadic environments introduce challenges, such as varying QoS, variations and limitations of the mobile devices, as compared to desktop environments
    • Device independence and adaptation are key issues when designing and implementing services for such environments
  • Agent architecture with efficient communication
  • Ontologies
    • (Wireless) networks
    • QoS
    • Other domains need conceptualization as well
      • Services
      • Users
        • Preferences, etc.
      • Devices

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

more information
More information
  • Heikki Helin and Mikko Laukkanen: Performance Analysis of Software Agent Communication in Slow Wireless Networks. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN\'02), October 2002
  • Heikki Helin and Mikko Laukkanen: Wireless Network Ontology. In WWRF#9, July 2003
  • Heikki Helin: Supporting Nomadic Agent-based Applications in FIPA Agent Architecture. PhD Thesis. University of Helsinki, Finland. February 2003.

Heikki Helin: Wireless Agent-based Semantic Web Interaction

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