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Biology and Behavior. Neural Control Systems Psychopharmacology The Nervous System How do we know these things?. Cells and synapses. Cells of the nervous system Glial cells Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes Neurons Unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar Soma, axons and dendrites Synapses.

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biology and behavior

Biology and Behavior

Neural Control Systems

Psychopharmacology

The Nervous System

How do we know these things?

cells and synapses
Cells and synapses
  • Cells of the nervous system
    • Glial cells
      • Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes
    • Neurons
      • Unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar
      • Soma, axons and dendrites
      • Synapses
neural transmission 5 steps

+50

0

-70

0 1 2 3 4

Time in mSec

Neural transmission: 5 steps

1. Resting potential: -70mV

  • Pump Na+ out, K+ in

2. Threshold stimulation:-65mV

3. Action potential: +50mV

  • Allow Na+ in, K+ out

4. Refractory period: -80mV

5. Restore resting potential

mV

ion movements

Na+

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Ion movements
ion movements1

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Ion movements
the propagation of the action potential
The propagation of the action potential

Note:

Myelin sheath

Nodes of Ranvier

Saltatory conduction

seven steps of synaptic transmission
Manufacture and storage of neurotransmitter (acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)

Arrival of action potential

Release of NT into synaptic cleft

Bonding of NT with receptor sites

Change in receiving neuron

Release of NT back into cleft

Metabolism or reuptake

Seven steps of synaptic transmission
the synapse
The Synapse

Axon terminal

Post-synaptic membrane (dendrite, muscle, gland)

Neurotransmitters

Synaptic vesicles

Receptor sites

some neurotransmitters
Some neurotransmitters
  • Acetylcholine (ACh)
  • Norepinephrine (NE)
  • Serotonin (5-HT)
  • Dopamine (DA)
  • g-amino butyric acid (GABA)
  • Glutamate or glutamic acid (GA)
  • Endorphins and enkephalins
the nervous system
The nervous system
  • Two main divisions:
    • Central Nervous System (CNS)
      • Encased in bone (skull and spinal column)
    • Peripheral Nervous System
slide11
CNS
  • Two main divisions:
    • Brain
    • Spinal cord
slide12
PNS
  • Cranial and spinal nerves
  • Sensory-Motor system
  • Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
    • Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS)
    • Parasympathetic Nervous System (PSNS)
the brain
The brain
  • Brain stem
    • Medulla: Vegetative functions
    • Pons: Connections
    • Tectum and tegmentum: Reflexes
  • Cerebellum: Postural reflexes, movements
  • Cerebral hemispheres
cerebral hemispheres
Cerebral hemispheres
  • Cerebral cortex: Gray matter
    • Frontal lobe
    • Parietal lobe
    • Temporal lobe
    • Occipital lobe
  • Sub-cortical gray-matter structures
    • Limbic system
    • Thalamus and hypothalamus
    • Hippocampus
  • White matter: Communication
    • Male and female general intelligence (Haier & Jung, 2005)
lobes of cortex
Lobes of Cortex

Parietal lobe

CentralSulcus

Occipital

Lobe

Frontal lobe

Temporal

Lobe

Cere-

bellum

Pons

methods of studying the brain
Methods of studying the brain
  • Animal models
    • Stereotaxic methods
  • Natural ablation studies, surgery
  • Psychopharmacology
  • Imaging techniques
    • CT, MRI, PET scans
  • Recording methods: EEG
psychopharmacology
Pheromones

Hormones

Neuromodulators

Neurotransmitters

Psychopharmacology
drug effects
Hormone mimics and receptors

Adrenaline, estradiol

Alter manufacture or release of neurotransmitters

Black widow venom, botulinum toxin (Botox)

Mimic or block receptor sites

Nicotine, curare, chlorpromazine

Drug effects
drug effects 2
Inhibit reuptake: Cocaine, fluoxetine

Stimulate neuromodulators

Barbiturates and benzodiazepines

Drug effects 2
hormones the endocrine system
Hormones: The endocrine system
  • The hypothalamus and the pituitary body
  • Hormone receptor molecules
    • Oxytocin acts only on mammary glands and the uterus
    • Testosterone acts on facial hair receptors
endocrine control
Endocrine control
  • Hypothalamus controls by releasing hormones
    • CRH (Corticotropin Releasing Hormone)
    • Anterior part of pituitary releases ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone)
    • Adrenal cortex releases cortisol
    • Hypothalamus detects cortisol and lowers release of CRH
  • Other glands are controlled in similar ways.
other glands and hormones
Other glands and hormones
  • Anterior pituitary: GH (Growth Hormone)
    • Dwarfism and gigantism
  • Thyroid: Thyroxine and triiodothyronine
    • Metabolic rate, growth, maturation
  • Pancreas: Insulin
  • Pituitary LH (Luteinizing Hormone) and FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) activate ovaries and testes to produce gametes and sex hormones
the brainstem
The Brainstem

Thalamus

Tectum/Colluculi

Tegmentum

Pons

Medulla

ct pet and mri scans
CT, PET, and MRI scans
  • CT, PET and MRI scan facilities
  • This clip shows the typical apparatus.
  • The person lies on the bed, with the head in the doughnut opening.
mri in psychological research
MRI in psychological research
  • In this clip, you see the MRI results as a participant watches visual stimuli of two types, either combinations of lines or a moving figure with human proportions.

Note: Light yellow indicates high activity. Occipital lobe is in the center of this view of the brain; temporal to the side.

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