Stem cells and cellular differentiation
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Stem Cells and Cellular Differentiation. Stem Cell Basics: Educational cartoon . http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tPulEAryPO0. Learning Goals. I know the two different types of stem cells. I have explored the applications of stem cells in the medical research field. Cellular Differentiation.

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Stem Cells and Cellular Differentiation

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Stem cells and cellular differentiation

Stem Cells and Cellular Differentiation

Stem Cell Basics: Educational cartoon

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tPulEAryPO0


Learning goals

Learning Goals

  • I know the two different types of stem cells.

  • I have explored the applications of stem cells in the medical research field


Cellular differentiation

Cellular Differentiation

  • A process by which a less specialized cell develops into a more specialized cell to perform a specific function.

  • In a multicellular organism, differentiation occurs several times as the zygote develops into cells and tissues.

  • It is directed by the genetic information inside the cell’s DNA which is passed on from the parents to the offspring.


Stem cells

Stem Cells

  • Stem cells are found in multicellular organisms that divide through mitosis. They can differentiate into many different types of specialized cell types and self-renew to produce more stem cells.

  • Two Types of Stem Cells:

  • Embryonic Stem Cells – These are called pluripotent cells and are able to differentiate into any type of specialized cell.

  • Tissue Stem Cells – Adults stem cells found in specialized tissues that serve as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissue. Example – tissue stem cells in the bone marrow can differentiate into WBC, RBC or platelets.


Stem cells and cellular differentiation

Hierarchy of Embryonic (Pluripotent) Stem Cells


Cord blood cell banking

Cord Blood Cell Banking

  • After birth, the blood found in the umbilical cord is rich in tissue (or adult) stem cells

  • These stem cells can differentiate into any of the different types of blood cells.

  • Parents are often asked if they would like to ‘bank’ (or store) the tissue blood cells after the birth of their newborn baby.

  • A common use for cord blood stem cells is childhood leukemia


Tissue stem cell transplantation leukemia

Tissue Stem Cell Transplantation - Leukemia

  • Cord blood cells and bone marrow stem cells have been used to treat leukemia.

  • Leukemia is cancer of the bone marrow where stems cells divide out of control and produce non-functioning blood cells.

  • Chemotherapy is done to remove all of the damaged blood cells and bone marrow transplant occurs from a matched donor.

  • The healthy bone marrow contains blood stem cells that differentiate into healthy blood cells.


Regeneration and tissue engineerin g

Regeneration and Tissue Engineering

  • Regeneration is the ability of a tissue to repair itself.

  • Skin, blood and bone cells are able to regenerate themselves but nerve cells are not able to regenerate completely.

  • Example: Starfish are able to regenerate their limbs if one is broken off. Salamanders are able to regenerate their tails after it falls off.

  • Tissue Engineering: Scientists are researching ways to regenerate tissues in the human body that do not normally regenerate themselves.

Example? Lab-grown tissue used to repair knee cartilage


Homework

Homework

  • Chapter 3.2, page 79 #2, 4-7


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