Stem cells and cellular differentiation
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Stem Cells and Cellular Differentiation. Stem Cell Basics: Educational cartoon . http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tPulEAryPO0. Learning Goals. I know the two different types of stem cells. I have explored the applications of stem cells in the medical research field. Cellular Differentiation.

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Stem cells and cellular differentiation
Stem Cells and Cellular Differentiation

Stem Cell Basics: Educational cartoon

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tPulEAryPO0


Learning goals
Learning Goals

  • I know the two different types of stem cells.

  • I have explored the applications of stem cells in the medical research field


Cellular differentiation
Cellular Differentiation

  • A process by which a less specialized cell develops into a more specialized cell to perform a specific function.

  • In a multicellular organism, differentiation occurs several times as the zygote develops into cells and tissues.

  • It is directed by the genetic information inside the cell’s DNA which is passed on from the parents to the offspring.


Stem cells
Stem Cells

  • Stem cells are found in multicellular organisms that divide through mitosis. They can differentiate into many different types of specialized cell types and self-renew to produce more stem cells.

  • Two Types of Stem Cells:

  • Embryonic Stem Cells – These are called pluripotent cells and are able to differentiate into any type of specialized cell.

  • Tissue Stem Cells – Adults stem cells found in specialized tissues that serve as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissue. Example – tissue stem cells in the bone marrow can differentiate into WBC, RBC or platelets.



Cord blood cell banking
Cord Blood Cell Banking

  • After birth, the blood found in the umbilical cord is rich in tissue (or adult) stem cells

  • These stem cells can differentiate into any of the different types of blood cells.

  • Parents are often asked if they would like to ‘bank’ (or store) the tissue blood cells after the birth of their newborn baby.

  • A common use for cord blood stem cells is childhood leukemia


Tissue stem cell transplantation leukemia
Tissue Stem Cell Transplantation - Leukemia

  • Cord blood cells and bone marrow stem cells have been used to treat leukemia.

  • Leukemia is cancer of the bone marrow where stems cells divide out of control and produce non-functioning blood cells.

  • Chemotherapy is done to remove all of the damaged blood cells and bone marrow transplant occurs from a matched donor.

  • The healthy bone marrow contains blood stem cells that differentiate into healthy blood cells.


Regeneration and tissue engineerin g
Regeneration and Tissue Engineering

  • Regeneration is the ability of a tissue to repair itself.

  • Skin, blood and bone cells are able to regenerate themselves but nerve cells are not able to regenerate completely.

  • Example: Starfish are able to regenerate their limbs if one is broken off. Salamanders are able to regenerate their tails after it falls off.

  • Tissue Engineering: Scientists are researching ways to regenerate tissues in the human body that do not normally regenerate themselves.

Example? Lab-grown tissue used to repair knee cartilage


Homework
Homework

  • Chapter 3.2, page 79 #2, 4-7


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