Declaration of independence and the constitution
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Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. End of French and Indian War. Britain is hurting financially Proclamation of 1763- protects Indian lands Americans- “That’s our land!!!” Sugar Act Actually lower than before, though this time is it ENFORCED Quartering Act

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End of french and indian war
End of French and Indian War

  • Britain is hurting financially

    • Proclamation of 1763- protects Indian lands

      • Americans- “That’s our land!!!”

    • Sugar Act

      • Actually lower than before, though this time is it ENFORCED

    • Quartering Act

      • Soldiers could stay in colonists’ homes


End of french and indian war con t
End of French and Indian War (Con’t)

  • Stamp Act

    • Final straw – “NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION!”

  • Declaratory Act

    • British- “We are in charge!”

  • Other acts- Townshend Acts, Tea Act

  • Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)

    • Mostly aimed at Boston after Massacre and Tea Party


Reactions
Reactions

  • Albany Plan of Union 1754

    • We need to come together to stop all of this!

    • Didn’t work

  • Stamp Act Congress, 1765

    • First significant joint colonial response to a British measure

    • Petitioned Parliament and the King

  • Massachusetts Circular Letter

    • We shouldn’t have to pay the Townshend Acts


Reactions con t
Reactions (Con’t)

  • Boston Tea Party

  • First Continental Congress

    • Declaration of Rights and Grievances (to King George)

  • Second Continental Congress (after Lexington & Concord)

    • Olive Branch Petition  “Let’s fix things!”

      • Too late

    • July 4, 1776- Declaration of Independence



Results of the american revolution
Results of the American Revolution

  • 1) No change in political power

  • 2) No change in economic power

  • 3) No change for women or African-Americans

  • 4) Lost trade with British markets

  • 5) Economic depression


*AMERICAN REVOLUTION ONLY REVOLUTION IN THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD THAT DID NOT END IN A DICTATORSHIP*


Articles of confederation 1777 1789
Articles of WORLD THAT DID NOT END IN A DICTATORSHIP*Confederation, 1777-1789

Government of the US prior to the ratification of the Constitution

FEAR OF STRONG CENTRAL GOVT

STRONG FOCUS ON INDIVIDUAL LIBERTY

  • No executive branch

  • No supreme court

  • No power to tax ***

  • No power to coin money

  • No army (80 men)

  • No control of trade (internal or external)

  • 1 State = 1 Vote (1 House of Legislature)


Articles of confederation
Articles of Confederation WORLD THAT DID NOT END IN A DICTATORSHIP*

  • Deliberately weak federal government

  • Give states power

  • Problems:

  • Federal Gov’t cannot tax (NO $$$)

  • 7 states printing money

  • 9 states have own navy (to protect trade)

  • States pass tariff laws against each other

  • Trade starts to collapse


Articles of confederation1
Articles of Confederation WORLD THAT DID NOT END IN A DICTATORSHIP*

  • Depression hits states:

  • States impose higher taxes

  • People cannot afford to pay, lose land

  • Riots spread


Articles of confederation2
Articles of Confederation WORLD THAT DID NOT END IN A DICTATORSHIP*

  • Riots spread throughout the confederation

  • Western Massachusetts Farmers:

  • Refuse to pay taxes

  • Close courts

  • Destroy records (debts)

  • 2000 farmers led by Daniel Shays

  • “SHAYS REBELLION”

  • REBELLIONS BECOME MORE COMMON

  • FED GOVT POWERLESS (ANARCHY APPROACHING)


Constitutional convention
Constitutional Convention WORLD THAT DID NOT END IN A DICTATORSHIP*

  • Convention called in Philadelphia, PA, 1787

    • All 13 states invited

  • Convention was intended to revise the Articles of Confederation

  • For some the intention was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one


2 PLANS DISCUSSED: WORLD THAT DID NOT END IN A DICTATORSHIP*

VIRGINIA PLAN

&

NEW JERSEY PLAN


Virginia plan
Virginia Plan WORLD THAT DID NOT END IN A DICTATORSHIP*

  • Favored large states

  • 2 Houses of Legislature

    • Based on population

  • Single Executive

  • Gov’t involved in national matters

  • Gov’t can overrule states

  • Federal court system


New jersey plan
New Jersey Plan WORLD THAT DID NOT END IN A DICTATORSHIP*

  • Favored small states

  • 1 house of Legislature

    -1 State = 1 Vote

  • More than one executive

    -Some type of committee

  • Limited involvement in national matters

  • Cannot overrule states

  • No courts (only state courts)


Connecticut plan compromise
Connecticut Plan: Compromise WORLD THAT DID NOT END IN A DICTATORSHIP*

  • Blend of VA and NJ plans

  • 2 Houses of Legislature

    -1 Based on population (House of Representatives)

    -Elected by the people

    -1 Based on 1 vote per state (Senate)

    -Chosen by state legislatures

  • Single executive

    -Electoral votes (by state)

  • Federal Court System


3 5 compromise
3/5 Compromise WORLD THAT DID NOT END IN A DICTATORSHIP*

  • House of Representatives

    -based on population

  • How do you count population?

    -North vs. South SLAVERY

  • Compromise:

    -Slaves = 3/5 of a person


Constitution taken directly from the states for approval WORLD THAT DID NOT END IN A DICTATORSHIP*

-Bypasses Congress

  • Federalists: Support it

  • Federalist papers written supporting the Constitution

    • Alexander Hamilton

    • James Madison

    • John Jay


  • Anti-Federalists: Against Constitution WORLD THAT DID NOT END IN A DICTATORSHIP*

  • Anti-Federalists papers also published, hard to find

    • Patrick Henry

    • Samuel Adams

  • Concerns:

    • No Bill of Rights

    • Executive (President) too strong

    • Congress too strong

    • National gov’t too strong


  • Delaware first to approve the Constitution WORLD THAT DID NOT END IN A DICTATORSHIP*

  • RI last to approve it in 1790

  • Constitution ratified

  • Went into effect March 4, 1789

  • Elections for President held:

  • George Washington elected

  • John Adams elected as VP

    -(VP: Person coming in 2nd place)

  • Bill of Rights passed in 1791


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