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Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. End of French and Indian War. Britain is hurting financially Proclamation of 1763- protects Indian lands Americans- “That’s our land!!!” Sugar Act Actually lower than before, though this time is it ENFORCED Quartering Act

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end of french and indian war
End of French and Indian War
  • Britain is hurting financially
    • Proclamation of 1763- protects Indian lands
      • Americans- “That’s our land!!!”
    • Sugar Act
      • Actually lower than before, though this time is it ENFORCED
    • Quartering Act
      • Soldiers could stay in colonists’ homes
end of french and indian war con t
End of French and Indian War (Con’t)
  • Stamp Act
    • Final straw – “NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION!”
  • Declaratory Act
    • British- “We are in charge!”
  • Other acts- Townshend Acts, Tea Act
  • Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)
    • Mostly aimed at Boston after Massacre and Tea Party
reactions
Reactions
  • Albany Plan of Union 1754
    • We need to come together to stop all of this!
    • Didn’t work
  • Stamp Act Congress, 1765
    • First significant joint colonial response to a British measure
    • Petitioned Parliament and the King
  • Massachusetts Circular Letter
    • We shouldn’t have to pay the Townshend Acts
reactions con t
Reactions (Con’t)
  • Boston Tea Party
  • First Continental Congress
    • Declaration of Rights and Grievances (to King George)
  • Second Continental Congress (after Lexington & Concord)
    • Olive Branch Petition  “Let’s fix things!”
      • Too late
    • July 4, 1776- Declaration of Independence
results of the american revolution
Results of the American Revolution
  • 1) No change in political power
  • 2) No change in economic power
  • 3) No change for women or African-Americans
  • 4) Lost trade with British markets
  • 5) Economic depression
slide8

*AMERICAN REVOLUTION ONLY REVOLUTION IN THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD THAT DID NOT END IN A DICTATORSHIP*

articles of confederation 1777 1789
Articles of Confederation, 1777-1789

Government of the US prior to the ratification of the Constitution

FEAR OF STRONG CENTRAL GOVT

STRONG FOCUS ON INDIVIDUAL LIBERTY

  • No executive branch
  • No supreme court
  • No power to tax ***
  • No power to coin money
  • No army (80 men)
  • No control of trade (internal or external)
  • 1 State = 1 Vote (1 House of Legislature)
articles of confederation
Articles of Confederation
  • Deliberately weak federal government
  • Give states power
  • Problems:
  • Federal Gov’t cannot tax (NO $$$)
  • 7 states printing money
  • 9 states have own navy (to protect trade)
  • States pass tariff laws against each other
  • Trade starts to collapse
articles of confederation1
Articles of Confederation
  • Depression hits states:
  • States impose higher taxes
  • People cannot afford to pay, lose land
  • Riots spread
articles of confederation2
Articles of Confederation
  • Riots spread throughout the confederation
  • Western Massachusetts Farmers:
  • Refuse to pay taxes
  • Close courts
  • Destroy records (debts)
  • 2000 farmers led by Daniel Shays
  • “SHAYS REBELLION”
  • REBELLIONS BECOME MORE COMMON
  • FED GOVT POWERLESS (ANARCHY APPROACHING)
constitutional convention
Constitutional Convention
  • Convention called in Philadelphia, PA, 1787
    • All 13 states invited
  • Convention was intended to revise the Articles of Confederation
  • For some the intention was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one
slide14

2 PLANS DISCUSSED:

VIRGINIA PLAN

&

NEW JERSEY PLAN

virginia plan
Virginia Plan
  • Favored large states
  • 2 Houses of Legislature
    • Based on population
  • Single Executive
  • Gov’t involved in national matters
  • Gov’t can overrule states
  • Federal court system
new jersey plan
New Jersey Plan
  • Favored small states
  • 1 house of Legislature

-1 State = 1 Vote

  • More than one executive

-Some type of committee

  • Limited involvement in national matters
  • Cannot overrule states
  • No courts (only state courts)
connecticut plan compromise
Connecticut Plan: Compromise
  • Blend of VA and NJ plans
  • 2 Houses of Legislature

-1 Based on population (House of Representatives)

-Elected by the people

-1 Based on 1 vote per state (Senate)

-Chosen by state legislatures

  • Single executive

-Electoral votes (by state)

  • Federal Court System
3 5 compromise
3/5 Compromise
  • House of Representatives

-based on population

  • How do you count population?

-North vs. South SLAVERY

  • Compromise:

-Slaves = 3/5 of a person

slide19

Constitution taken directly from the states for approval

-Bypasses Congress

  • Federalists: Support it
  • Federalist papers written supporting the Constitution
    • Alexander Hamilton
    • James Madison
    • John Jay
slide20

Anti-Federalists: Against Constitution

  • Anti-Federalists papers also published, hard to find
    • Patrick Henry
    • Samuel Adams
  • Concerns:
    • No Bill of Rights
    • Executive (President) too strong
    • Congress too strong
    • National gov’t too strong
slide21

Delaware first to approve the Constitution

  • RI last to approve it in 1790
  • Constitution ratified
  • Went into effect March 4, 1789
  • Elections for President held:
  • George Washington elected
  • John Adams elected as VP

-(VP: Person coming in 2nd place)

  • Bill of Rights passed in 1791
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