State and local governments in the financial markets
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20. State And Local Governments In The Financial Markets. C h a p t e r. Money and Capital Markets. Financial Institutions and Instruments in a Global Marketplace. Eighth Edition. Peter S. Rose. McGraw Hill / Irwin. Slides by Yee-Tien (Ted) Fu.  Learning Objectives .

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State And Local Governments In The Financial Markets

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State and local governments in the financial markets

20

State And Local GovernmentsIn The Financial Markets

C h a p t e r

Money and Capital Markets

Financial Institutions and Instruments in a Global Marketplace

Eighth Edition

Peter S. Rose

McGraw Hill / Irwin

Slides by Yee-Tien (Ted) Fu


Learning objectives

 Learning Objectives 

  • To understand why state and local government borrowing has grown so rapidly in recent years.

  • To explore the various ways in which state and local governments raise the funds they need.

  • To examine the marketing process through which state and local government bonds and notes reach investors, and to learn why these instruments are attractive to investors.


Introduction

Introduction

  • The borrowing and spending activities of state and local governments have been one of the most rapidly growing segments of the financial system in recent years.

  • State and local governments are pressured by rising populations and inflated costs, while many investors are attracted by the high quality, ready marketability, active secondary market, and tax exemption feature of state and local debt obligations.


Growth of state and local government borrowing

$ Billions

U.S. Municipal securities

Data Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

Growth of State and Local Government Borrowing


Growth of state and local government borrowing1

Growth of State and Local Government Borrowing

  • What factors account for the strong growth in municipal borrowing?

    • Rapid population growth

    • Uneven distribution of population growth across the U.S. – smaller outlying communities were transformed into cities

    • Upgrading of citizens’ expectations concerning the quality of government services

    • Rising construction and labor costs


Sources of revenue and expenditures for u s state and local governments

( For 1998-99 in Millions of Dollars)

General revenues by source:

Property taxes…………………………………….. 240,107

Sales and gross receipts taxes…………………….. 290,993

Individual income taxes………………………….. 189,309

Corporation net income taxes…………………….. 33,922

Revenue from Federal Government……………… 270,628

Other (other taxes, charges, revues, etc.)………… 409,505

Total revenues…………………………………….. 1,434,464

General expenditures by function:

Education…………………………………………. 483,259

Highways…………………………………………. 93,018

Public welfare……………………………………. 218,957

Other (public safety, environment, interest, etc.)…607,134

Total expenditures…………………………………1,402,369

Data Source: Economic Report of the President

Sources of Revenue and ExpendituresFor U.S. State and Local Governments


Sources of revenue and expenditures for state and local governments

Cash Outflows:

Schools and other educational facilities

Transportation facilities (highways, airports, commuter systems, etc.)

Social services (income and medical support, housing, public safety)

Industrial development incentives

Administration and employee payrolls

Interest and debt repayments

States, Cities, Counties, School Districts, and Other Local Governments

Sources of Revenue and ExpendituresFor State and Local Governments

Cash Inflows:

Taxes (property, sales, income, miscellaneous)

User fees

Special assessments

Intergovernmental transfers from federal and state governments

Borrowings (net market value of municipal debt sold)


Motivations for state and local government borrowing

$

Motivations forState and Local Government Borrowing

  • State and local governments borrow money

    • to satisfy short-term cash needs and maintain adequate levels of working capital,

    • to finance long-term capital investment like building schools and highways, and

    • for advance refunding of higher cost securities.


Types of securities issued by state and local governments

Types of Securities Issued byState and Local Governments

  • Short-term securities are generally issued to provide working capital.

    • Tax-anticipation notes (TANs)

    • Revenue-anticipation notes (RANs)

    • Bond-anticipation notes (BANs) – for temporary financing of long-term projects until the time is right to sell long-term bonds


Types of securities issued by state and local governments1

Types of Securities Issued byState and Local Governments

  • Long-term securities are used mainly to fund capital projects.

    • General obligation bonds (GOs)

    • Revenue bonds – payable only from a specified source of revenue

      • Student-loan revenue bonds (SLRBs)

      • Life-care bonds

      • Hospital revenue bonds

      • Industrial development bonds (IDBs)


Types of securities issued by state and local governments2

Types of Securities Issued byState and Local Governments

  • In recent years, several new municipal instruments were developed.

    • Floating-rate bonds

    • Option bonds

    • Lottery bonds

    • Securitized bonds


Key features of municipal debt

Key Features of Municipal Debt

  • Tax exemption

    • Less tax revenue can be collected from the high-bracket investors. However, the interest cost for municipal governments is low relative to the rates paid by other borrowers.

  • High credit ratings

    • Most municipal issues are considered to be of investment quality rather than speculative buys.


Key features of municipal debt1

Key Features of Municipal Debt

  • Serialization

    • Most municipal bonds are serial securities.

    • Serialization refers to the splitting up of a single bond issue into several different maturities.


How municipal bonds are marketed

How Municipal Bonds are Marketed

  • The selling of municipals is usually carried out through a syndicate of banks and securities dealers.

  • These institutions purchase the securities from the issuing government units and then resell them in the open market at a higher price.

  • Prices paid by the underwriting firms may be determined by competitive bidding or by negotiation.


Problems in the municipal market

Problems in the Municipal Market

  • Many observers question the social benefit of the tax-exemption privilege.

    • Although state and local governments can borrow more cheaply, the federal government must tax more heavily to make up for the lost revenue.

    • Many important investor groups (such as pension funds) have little need for tax shelters.


The outlook for state and local governments

The Outlook for State and Local Governments

  • With slower economic growth and less federal support, more states will be under pressure to force cities, counties, and school districts to deal with their own problems and find their own funding sources.

  • At the same time, the need for local government services and the interest of investors are not likely to fade, thus ensuring the future growth of the market for state and local government debt securities.


Money and capital markets in cyberspace

Money and Capital Markets in Cyberspace

  • Find out more about state and local government activity in the financial markets at:

    • http://www.investinginbonds.com/

    • http://www.stoeverglass.com/

    • http://www.delphishanover.com/

    • http://www.ml.com/

    • http://www.mizuho-sc.com/english/index.html

    • http://www.piperinfo.com/state/index.cfm

    • http://www.census.gov/govs/www/index.html


Chapter review

Chapter Review

  • Introduction

  • Growth of State and Local Government Borrowing

  • Sources of Revenue and Expenditures for State and Local Governments

  • Motivations for State and Local Government Borrowing


Chapter review1

Chapter Review

  • Types of Securities Issued by State and Local Governments

    • Short-Term Securities

    • Long-Term Securities

    • Innovations in Municipal Securities

  • Key Features of Municipal Debt

  • How Municipal Bonds are Marketed


Chapter review2

Chapter Review

  • Problems in the Municipal Market

    • Problems Regarding Tax Exemption

    • The Outlook for State and Local Governments


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