Permian. Greg Daviduck & Alex Dreger. The Permian Time Period.
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Greg Daviduck & Alex Dreger
Coral is a marine organism that is made up of millions of smaller genetically identical polyps
They secrete calcium carbonate to for a hard exoskeleton
Most corals depend on sunlight therefore they tend to grow in shallow water and often bond together to form reefs
Trilobites are hard shelled, segmented creatures that lived between The Cambrian period and survived up to the Permian period
Trilobites were widely spread their fossils are found across every continent in the world
Gastropods were the largest and the most successful of the molluscs classes
They have developed aggressive eating mechanism and pulmonary systems
The early Gastropods had spiral shells that resembled a curled garden hose
Belemnites were squid-like carnivores with a soft body around an internal, pencil-shaped shell
The cuttlefish is the modern-day relative of the belemnite
Belemnites were efficient carnivores that caught small fish and marine animals with their tentacles, and ate them with their beak-like jaws
Their tentacles were different to the modern squid, as they had hooks instead of suckers to grab prey
They were built for speed and probably lived in shoals
A mollusk, such as an oyster or a clam, that has a shell consisting of two hinged valves
Bivalves have no head. They feed on phytoplankton by pumping water across the gills and trapping food particles that are then moved to the mouth
These crinoids resemble plants, with their fronds, stems, and roots anchoring them to the rocks. Yet crinoids are animals, organisms with a nervous system, and the larvae are capable of swimming freely before metamorphosing to the sessile form seen in this photo.
Brachiopods make up one of the major animal types. Also known as lamp shells, they are sessile, two-shelled, marine animals that somewhat resemble "clams" externally but are quite different internally.
Unlike bivalves, which have a left shell and a right shell, brachiopods are always bilaterally symmetric, although the top and bottom shells usually differ in shape.
By the Pennsylvanian and well into the Permian, by far the most successful were primitive relatives of cockroaches. Six fast legs, two well developed folding wings, fairly good eyes, long, well developed antennae (olfactory), an omnivorous digestive system, a receptacle for storing sperm, a chitin skeleton that could support and protect, as well as form of gizzard and efficient mouth parts, gave it formidable advantages over other herbivorous animals. About 90% of insects were cockroach-like insects
Early Permian terrestrial faunas were dominated by pelycosaurs and amphibians, the middle Permian by primitive therapsids such as the dinocephalia, and the late Permian by more advanced therapsids such as gorgonopsians and dicynodonts. Towards the very end of the Permian the first archosaurs appeared, a group that would give rise to the dinosaurs in the following period. Also appearing at the end of the Permian were the first cynodonts, which would go on to evolve into mammals during the Triassic. Another group of therapsids, the therocephalians (such as Trochosaurus), arose in the Middle Permian. There were no aerial vertebrates.