aksi nirkekerasan pengantar studi perdamaian 2007. apa?. aksi : berbuat sesuatu / melawan; bukan hanya diam / pasrah / takluk pacifism ? active nonviolence ? nirkekerasan : tidak menggunakan kekerasan, baik terhadap diri sendiri maupun lawan
jahit mulut, mogok makan, puasa, bakar diri, lempar batu?
“an umbrella term for describing a range of methods for dealing with conflict which share the common principle that physical violence, at least against other people, is not used” (Weber & Burrowes 1991: 1)
prasyarat: complementarity of nonviolent action & conflict resolution (Veronique Dudouet)
Gene Sharp (1973: 64)
Nonviolent action is about “deny(-ing) the enemy the human assistance and cooperation which are necessary if he is to exercise control over the population” It is one response to the problem of how to act effectively in politics, especially on how to wield power effectively (Sharp 1973: 64).
Peter Ackerman and Christopher Kruegler (1994: 4)
Nonviolent actions are “methods capable of bringing pressure to bear against the most ruthless opponents, by mobilizing social, economic, and political power, without recourse to killing or otherwise causing direct physical injury to the opponents or their agents”.
Mohandas Karamchad Gandhi
Ahimsa, or the principle of non-violence, is in man’s nature itself (Gandhi, in Merton 1964: 23) and can be effectively taught only by living it (Gandhi 1966: 5), or in other words, embracing it as a way of life. The Gandhian concept of nonviolence is more than merely rejecting violence. It is also about love, seeking for truth, building positive relationships, and developing just structures – sometimes involving self-suppression and suffering. The term satyagraha, which in many literatures is simply translated as nonviolent action, actually means an ongoing and persistent search for truth and a determination to achieve truth. Here, the exclusion of violence is based on the notion that no one is capable of knowing the absolute truth (Gandhi, cited in Burrowes 1996: 107-108).
(1) ideologis/pragmatis? (2) mengapa perlu dibedakan?
“… when the Japanese approach, the people evacuate the village completely, bury their food, remove all animals and utensils, and retire to the hills. The Japanese must, therefore, bring with them everything they need” (George Taylor, cited in Sharp 1973: 211).
“… each morning an entire platoon of Chinese soldiers would march out on the ice and lowering their trousers train their buttocks towards the Soviet side, the ultimate in Chinese insults. This exercise continued until one morning just as the Chinese assumed their positions the Russians set up large portraits of Mao facing in their direction. The Chinese hastily covered themselves and retired in confusion. There were no repetitions” (Edmund Stevens, cited in Sharp 1973: 145).
“The year was 1600, or thereabouts, when these tribal feminists decided that they had enough of unregulated warfare by their men. Lysistratas among the Indian women proclaimed a boycott on lovemaking and childbearing. Until the men conceded to them the power to decide upon war and peace, there would be no more warriors. Since the Iroquois men believed that women alone knew the secret of birth, the feminist rebellion was instantly successful” (Stan Steiner, cited in Sharp 1973: 191).
kekerasan hanya mereproduksi masalah, bukan menyelesaikannya (i.e. violent counterterrorism measures)
Mayor of Bogota, PM of Thailand
nonviolent policing, nonviolent counterinsurgency
raid / air raid
vegan & veggie
stay at home
asertivitas dalam menyampaikan pendapat
kesamaan kultur politik
rencana a – z
polarisasi – anda mau berada di kapal yang mana?
alasan yang kuat
When an action is outside the experience of the people, the result is confusion, fear, and retreat.
Here you want to cause confusion, fear, and retreat.
You can kill them with this, for they can no more obey their own rules than the Christian church can live up to Christianity.
It is almost impossible to counterattack ridicule. Also it infuriates the opposition, who then react to your advantage.
If your people are not having a ball doing it, there is something very wrong with the tactic.
You cannot risk being trapped by the enemy in his sudden agreement with your demand and saying "You\'re right--we don\'t know what to do about this issue. Now you tell us."