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Locomotion. Locomotion:. The act or power of moving from place to place. Vocabulary. The ability to move from place to place. Lacking the ability to move on their own or being stationary. Motile = Sessile = Muscle contraction = Exoskeleton = Endoskeleton = Pseudopods = Cilia =

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The act or power of moving from place to place



The ability to move from place to place

Lacking the ability to move on their own or being stationary

  • Motile =

  • Sessile =

  • Muscle contraction =

  • Exoskeleton =

  • Endoskeleton =

  • Pseudopods =

  • Cilia =

  • Flagella =

  • Setae =

How muscles exert force, by shortening

Skeleton on the outside of the body

Skeleton on the inside of the body

Temporary projection of the cell surface

Short hair-like fibers on an organism the beat rhythmically

Larger hair-like fibers, usually only 1 or 2 per cell

Tiny bristles on the underside of the earthworm

Advantages for locomotion

Advantages for Locomotion

  • It is easier to get food

  • It its easier to find shelter

  • An organism can move away from dangerous conditions or predators

  • It is easier to find mates and reproduce

Locomotion in the deep s ea

Locomotion in the Deep Sea


Adaptations in locomotion

Adaptations in Locomotion

Locomotion in protists

Locomotion in Protists

  • Amoeba

  • Paramecium

  • Euglena



  • An organism moves when the cytoplasm moves into or out of the pseudopods

  • This movement is also seen in white blood cells

  • This movement is also known as amoeboid movement

To see an amoeba move

To see an amoeba move…






  • Paramecium move by cilia beating rhythmically

  • They move quicker than amoeba

To see a paramecium move

To see a paramecium move…





  • Euglena moves by one long, thin structure called a flagella

  • Whip-like movementspull it through the water


Locomotion in the earthworm

Locomotion in the Earthworm

  • Outer and inner layers of muscles shorten and lengthen the body

  • Setae hook the ground in order for the body to push and pull forward

To see an earthworm move

To see an earthworm move…




Locomotion in the grasshopper

Locomotion in the Grasshopper

  • Exoskeleton divided into plates to allow movement

  • 3 pair of jointed legs

  • First 2 pair used for walking

  • Powerful third pair used for jumping

  • 2 pair of wings for flying

To see a grasshopper move

To see a grasshopper move…


The skeletal system

The Skeletal System

Bones and cartilage

Bones and Cartilage


  • Are a type of connective tissue

  • Act as an attachment for muscles

  • Give the body shape and support

  • Protect the body’s organs

  • Serve as a storage area for minerals (calcium)

  • Produce red and white blood cells in the marrow (soft inside)

    • True red marrow produces red blood cells

  • The periosteumis the tough layer of connective tissue that surrounds and protects the bone.

  • Two types of bone tissue

    • Spongy - light weight but adds strength to bone

    • Compact – more dense and stores minerals (calcium)

Bones and cartilage1

Bones and Cartilage


  • Is a type of connective tissuethat bends easily

  • Most of the skeleton of an embryo is cartilage

  • In adults, it only remains in the joints, the ears, the nose and at the end of the ribs

  • Cushions the joints

The human skeleton

The Human Skeleton

  • 206 bones

  • Two main parts

    • The axial skeleton

    • The appendicular skeleton

The axial skeleton

The Axial Skeleton

Made up of

  • Cranium (skull)

  • Vertebral column (backbone)

  • Sternum (breast bone)

  • Rib cage

The appendicular skeleton

The Appendicular Skeleton

Pectoral girdle:

  • Arm bones

  • Wrist and hand bones

  • Scapula (shoulder blades)

  • Clavicles (collar bones)

    Pelvic girdle:

  • Pelvis

  • Leg bones

  • Ankle and foot bones



  • The place where bones meet is called a joint

  • Some are immovable (i.e.. the skull)

  • Most are moveable



Moveable joints:

  • Hinge = elbow and knee

  • Ball-and-Socket = shoulder and hip

  • Pivot = base of the skull

  • Gliding joint = wrists



  • Attaches bone to bone



  • Attach muscles to bones



Ligaments attach

Tendons attach

bone to bone

muscles to bone

The human muscular system

The Human Muscular System

  • Muscles can exert force when they contract, or shorten.

  • When they contract, they move the parts of the skeleton (bones) they are attached to.

The human muscular system1

The Human Muscular System

There are three types of muscles:

  • Cardiac muscle (heart muscle)

  • Smooth muscle (muscles of the organs and blood vessels)

  • Skeletal muscles(muscles that move your skeleton bones)

Cardiac muscle

Cardiac Muscle

  • Muscle that makes up the heart

  • These muscles are involuntary

    (you do not have conscious control over their contractions)

Smooth muscles

Smooth muscles

  • Found in the walls of internal organs, in the walls of arteries, and the diaphragm

  • These muscles are involuntary(you do not have conscious control over their contractions)

Skeletal muscles

Skeletal muscles

  • Voluntary muscles– you do have control of the movement

  • They are fastened to the bones of the skeleton

  • Muscle cells fuse together to form muscle fibers

Skeletal muscles1

Skeletal muscles

  • Muscles are attached to the bones by tendons

Skeletal muscles2

Skeletal muscles

  • There is always a certain amount of tone in the skeletal muscles – even at rest.

  • Skeletal muscles are in a state of readiness known as muscle tone

Skeletal muscles3

Skeletal muscles

  • Muscles can only pull, they cannot push

  • Muscles move a joint in antagonistic pairs


On one side of the joint, the muscle flexes (contacts) while the other side of the joint extends (relaxes)

The biceps contract

The triceps relax

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