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Prevent injury to people Prevent damage to property. Blasting & Flyrock Awareness Recognizing the Hazards. Blasting activities are carefully regulated by several governmental agencies. Legal Standards OSHA 29 CFR Part 1910 - General Industry 29 CFR Part 1926 - Construction MSHA

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Blasting & Flyrock Awareness Recognizing the Hazards

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Presentation Transcript

Prevent injury to people

Prevent damage to property

  • Blasting & Flyrock Awareness

  • Recognizing the Hazards

Blasting activities are carefully regulated by

several governmental agencies.

  • Legal Standards

    • OSHA

      • 29 CFR Part 1910 - General Industry

      • 29 CFR Part 1926 - Construction

    • MSHA

      • 56.6000 - Metal & Non-Metal Mines

    • Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms

    • DOT

Blaster Qualifications

  • Knowledge and Experience

  • Training

  • Physical Ability

  • Evidence of Competency

Basic Blasting Terminology

  • Blaster-in-Charge

  • Blasting Plan

  • Blast Area

  • Flyrock

  • Early-Warning Signal

  • Final-Warning Signal

  • All-Clear Signal

  • Rock blasting is the controlled use of explosives to excavate or remove rock.

  • It is a technique used most often in mining and civil engineering.


  • Best Practices:

  • ensuring that all personnel have evacuated the blast area during shot firing;

  • using adequate blasting shelters for employees whose presence is required in the blast area

  • controlling and monitoring all entrances to the blast area; ensuring that the blast is properly designed,

  • drilled, and loaded; and

  • emphasizing education and training to enhance skill levels for implementation of engineering control techniques.

Weather Conditions

  • Conduct Pre-Blast Meeting

  • Review of weather conditions

  • Communicate number of holes

  • Calculate bags per hole

  • Discuss reasons to turn off electronic

  • devices

  • Review personnel location

  • Discuss stemming process

  • Discuss gas and fume releases

  • Remind those working alone to stay

  • in communication w/supervisor


Blasting Shelter

Drilling Blast Holes

Storage of Explosives

Transport of Explosives

An example of a firing pattern which provides separate

delay time for the blastholes and gives good fragmentation

as well as good breakage.

Blast Area

Understanding Warning Signals & Signs

Two warnings are common…

HOWEVER, some sites use only one signal!

Early-Warning Signal

Every sites warning signals are unique!!

  • ___ minutes before shot is fired.

  • Warns holes have been loaded with explosives and prepared.

  • Means blast area is clear, guards have stopped traffic into area.

  • Blast crew inspects grounds to make sure no people or equipmen is in the blast area.

Final-Warning Signal

  • ___ minutes before firing.

  • Timing is different on each site.

  • Radio silence is necessary.

  • Guards will halt blast if they sight anyone in area.

All-Clear Signal

  • Blaster can't order the all-clear signal just yet.

  • The blaster must inspect the area to see if there are any misfires.

  • It may take minutes, hours or days to determine if there is a misfire.

  • Stay out until the All-Clear signal sounds.

Warning Signals

  • Be alert and share information

  • Know the blasting time, blast area and clearing procedure; and

  • Do not enter the blast area

  • until an “all-clear” signal is sounded.

Blast Logs - Recorded Evidence

The location of the blast within the permit area allows the regulator to verify the distance.

  • Know the location of the blast

  • Check the distance!!

Permit Area

690 Feet




Rock blasting in northern Ontario to make way for new highway upgrades.

The six exposures were taken over a span of 3 seconds.

This animation is displayed over 6 seconds.

Excavation crews working on sites involving blasting

operations may be exposed to the hazards of undetonated

charges during removal of blasted rock.

Optimum Depth


Flyrock is caused by a mismatch of the distribution

of the explosive energy, geomechanical strength

of rock mass, and confinement.

A professional baseball pitch averages 90 mph, or slightly faster.

Flyrock has been clocked at 400 mph. Can you dodge that?

Protect Yourself!

  • July 2002 - West Virginia

  • A truck driver and his supervisor were watching a blast from 1/2 mile away - waiting for the "all clear" signal.

  • A rock slammed into the front windshield and exited the rear. It somehow missed both people. No one was hurt.


  • Hard hat

  • Safety-toed shoes

  • Reflective vest

  • Safety glasses

  • Gloves

  • Hearing protection

MSHA Part 48

  • State of Alaska: 11 AAC 95.335. Blasting Standards

  • (a) A person may not discharge an explosive in the following areas without first obtaining a variation under 11 AAC 95.235:

  • (1) Type A or Type B stream riparian areas in Region I; and

  • (2) within all riparian areas in Region II or III.

  • (b) During blasting, an operator shall minimize the amount of flyrock materials deposited into fish-bearing waters.

  • Authority:

  • AS 41.17.010

  • AS 41.17.080

  • Explosives Security Reminder

  • Inspect, verify each magazine is properly secured

  • according to all applicable regulations, company

  • policy, as well as manufacturers recommendations

  • Explosives Security Reminder

  • Report missing explosives immediately

  • Explosives Security Reminder

  • Ensure that any vehicle used to transport explosives is properly secured and attended.

  • Explosives Security Reminder

  • Verify that inventories of explosives are correct

  • Copy is maintained in magazine with duplicate at mine office

Explosives Security Reminder

Verify person’s identify before allowing them to enter

explosive magazines or review inventory records





Misfires found during the post-blast inspection

Exclude all employees from danger zone.

No other work except that required to clear the


Only the Blaster-in-Charge handles all the

sequence of events following a misfire.

Extra care must be taken, as the designed pattern

HAS changed.

Explosives Security Reminder

  • Review facility’s security measures

  • Are further measures necessary to protect explosives from theft?

  • Explosives Security Reminder

  • Post proper authorities phone

  • numbers in conspicous locations

  • Explosives Security Reminder

  • Periodically inspect magazines for evidence of tampering or theft

  • Explosives Security Reminder

  • Immediately report shortages, loss or theft of any explosive material to:

  • 1-888-ATF-BOMB


  • Good communication between the

  • driller, blaster, access control guard,

  • and miners is the key to a safe blasting

  • operation.

Thank you for your participation.

  • Other regulated operations

    • Underground transportation of

    • explosives - 1926.903

    • Use of safety fuse - 1926.907

    • Use of detonating cord - 1926.908

    • Underwater blasting - 1926.912

    • Blasting in excavation work under

    • compressed air - 1926.913

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