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Hygiene & Sanitation Promotion - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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WCAR Programme Communication Network Meeting April 2008. Hygiene & Sanitation Promotion. WASH interventions . Water Supply Sanitation Hygiene promotion Hand washing Safe disposal of child feces HWTS WASH in Schools WASH in Emergencies. 10 million children U5 die each year.

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Hygiene & Sanitation Promotion

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WCAR Programme Communication Network Meeting

April 2008

Hygiene &Sanitation Promotion

WASH interventions

  • Water Supply

  • Sanitation

  • Hygiene promotion

    • Hand washing

    • Safe disposal of child feces

  • HWTS

  • WASH in Schools

  • WASH in Emergencies

10 million children U5 die each year

Disease & disability

  • 4 billion cases of diarrhoea each year

  • 10% of the developing world suffer from intestinal worm infections

  • 6 million people are blind from trachoma

  • 200 million people in the world are infected with schistosomiasis

Diarrhoea Risk Reduction

Previous reviews:

a – dEsrey SA et al. (1991) Bull WHO 69 (5): 609-621

eCurtis V, Cairncross S (2003) Lancet Inf Dis 3: 275-281.

Fewtrell L et al. (2005) Lancet Infect Dis 5(1): 42-52.

Severe and moderate stunting could be reduced by 39%.

Improved hygiene behaviours would decrease the risk of stunting in one in three children who are already vulnerable

Without improved hygiene behaviours four in ten children will not reach their full educational potential

Maintaining a healthy environment through hygiene improvements is essential to safe guarding the health and quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS.

AHI – hand washing one of the four key messages

Evidence Base – Quick Wins

  • Hand Washing – Correct hand washing at critical times can reduce diarrhoea by 42 -47%.Children Under 15 - 53% lower incidence of diarrhoea.

  • New evidence shows that it can also reduce ARI’s by over by 6-44% (Lower risk by 50%)

Evidence Base – Quick Wins

  • Handwashing is cost effective, HW campaigns avert one DALY per US$3.35 spent. Which places the cost-effectiveness of hand washing at the top of child survival interventions

  • MBB – economic data, Hand washing $0.39 per person

Cost effectiveness

Source: Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2nd edition

2006 (www.dcp2.org) – Chapter 41

It’s all about Partnership . . . .

  • National and local Government structures

  • NGO’s, CBO’s, FBO’s

  • Religious & Community leaders

  • Development Partners & Donors

  • Media

  • Private Sector

  • Voluntary Groups & individuals

  • One common logo – joint ownership

Advocacy and Promotion . . . .

  • Advocacy with decision makers, leaders, donors, private sector, leaders and the media.

  • Promotion at community, school, household and individual levels

Common Messages . . . .

  • Avoid different and sometimes conflicting messages

  • Simple practical messages that everyone can use

  • One theme to maximise impact – handwashing, sanitation, water quality, etc.

  • Build on existing knowledge & practices




Existing dissemination mechanisms

MoH, MoE, MoWR, NGO’s, FBO’s

Regional Health, Water & Education Bureaus

Private Sector

WASH committees

Recruitment of mass media, press events.

Mass Media

TV, Radio, print

Interpersonal CommunicationHouse to house promotion with decision makers, caretakers & children

Improve knowledge of 4 critical handwashing moments among caretakers and children

Creation, printing of promotional materials,

Recruitment, activation & participation of NGO’s, FBOs,CBOs, schools, & community leaders

Community MobilisationCommunity, religious & educational promotional events





CLTS/Total Sanitation

  • Open Defecation Free Communities

  • Community based process

  • Demand Driven

  • Technology choice secondary

  • Social change – pride and dignity

  • Community managed

CLTS/Total Sanitation

  • Asia – Cambodia, Bangladesh, India

  • Africa – Ethiopia, Zambia, Malawi, Sierra Leone (Kaka free villages)

  • America’s – Bolivia

  • In total approximately 17 countries

  • SLTS – School Led Total Sanitation in Pakistan

Dare to think differently. . .Meet Captain Bubbles

PPPHW (www.globalhandwashing.org)Concept Note available

Global level, the initiative seeks to raise the profile of handwashing and created sustained interest in public and private organizations.

Country level, the PPPHW advocates for, and assists in the planning and implementing of large-scale country handwashing programs. While programs tend vary with local conditions, all share a common approach:

  • Researching consumer needs to find out about handwashing habits, barriers and drivers of behavior change, and the best ways to communicate to the target audience;

  • Designing appropriate and appealing messages;

  • Implementing a promotion program making use of all suitable channels, whether through outreach workers, citizen networks, special events, soap distributors, schools, or mass media;

  • Measuring and evaluating results.

Private Sector

  • Soap Manafacturers/detergent makers

  • Unilever, P & G, Colgate, etc

  • Example: Unilever

  • Global MoU, Country LoA’s

  • In Safe Hands

  • Project Champion


Our goal*

* Taken from the CHARTER document agreed between Unicef & Unilever /Lifebuoy in 2007

To make a contribution to MDG4 by promoting at scale the essential link between hand washing with soap and the health of Under 5’s by creating engaging ways for school children to:

  • Influence behaviour change among mothers/caregivers and siblings

  • Wash their own hands with soap at critical times.

Our Beliefs

Getting poorer households across the world to hand wash with soap is more alike as a challenge than it is different.

Creating a program from scratch in each new country (as is currently often done) wastes valuable resource.

School children and schools – one of the few common, stable and valued channels of influence within poor rural and urban communities in developing countries – can significantly influence behaviour at home.

Program Development

  • Working in Africa (Uganda) & Asia (TBC)…

  • Scoping

  • Clarify Task

  • Mine info & knowledge globally

  • Develop hypotheses

  • 2. Research

  • 2 countries

  • Experimental & exploratory

  • High core team involvement

  • 3. Insight & Creativity

  • Insight work

  • Ideas Roadshow

  • Selective testing

  • 4. Programme Design

  • Involve agencies & experts as necessary

The final program must work: at scale; across continents; where kids have little say; predominately through primary schools & primary school children.

Current Areas of Interest...

  • Social Norms theory

  • Finding a unifying insight (i.e. attendance)

  • Grossology + Disgust

  • Identifying key role kids can play (energy, channel, conscience, reminder, etc)

  • ‘Things’ that change behaviour

  • And more…

POP Intervention

Make Hands Happy

International Year of Sanitation

A once-off opportunity which we should seize!

UN Water – Task force on sanitation led by UNICEF

Common messages and materials

Communication strategy – for all aspects

Matrix of interventions and activities

Increased funding


Focus on change not facilities

Useful Sites

  • Hygienecentral.org

  • EHP/HIP Website

  • CDC

  • WEDC – information notes

  • WELL


  • Household Water Treatment and safe storage

  • Waterguard – Chlorine based soln

  • Pur/Watermakers

  • Sodis

  • Filters

  • Social Marketing/product based

  • PSI, CDC, and network

WASH in Schoolswww.schools@watsan.net

  • Global Network and forum

  • Working with Children on key behaviours

  • Evidence base

  • Evaluations

WSSCC – It’s the big issuewww.wsscc.org

  • Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council

  • Advocacy

  • WASH Coordinators

  • WASH Campaigns/Movements

Access to




Hygiene Improvement

Enabling Environments

Diarrheal Disease









  • Behavioural & social Change & Skills

  • Family Mobilisation

  • Social Marketing

  • Community Participation in Problem Detection & Solutions (TripleA)

Evolution of Interventions:from Pumps to Prevention

  • Hardware focus - engineering approach

  • Sustainability focus - institutions, policies, cost recovery, community participation, private-sector involvement

  • Health impact focus - Address improving hygiene behaviors as the key to health improvement

Communicating for WASH

  • Behavioural Change

  • Social Change

  • Social Marketing

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